Agriculture, Forestry + Other Land Use

Source: World Resource Institute, via Our World in Data

Together, Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU) account for around 18.4% of the world’s annual GHG emissions.

Those emissions include not just carbon dioxide (CO2) (mainly from clearing tropical forest to make pasture for cattle, and from the decay of organic matter in soil), but also nitrous oxide (N2O) (produced by runoff from fertilizer and by manure), and methane (CH4) (produced by cattle digestive systems, by the decay of organic matter in submerged rice patties, and by many other sources).

We cannot limit warming to 1.5 or even 2 degrees C without cutting these emissions sharply. In fact, if we continue with agricultural business-as-usual, then even if we were to instantly cut all our other emissions (from industry, transportation, and so on) to zero, AFOLU emissions alone would be enough to warm the world well beyond 1.5 degrees, and bring it close to 2 degrees. So, we need to cut AFOLU emissions dramatically.

Food emissions could consume most of our 1.5 degree and 2 degree carbon budget.

Source: Our World in Data

Cutting these emissions would be a very difficult task even if everything else stayed the same. But the world is changing in ways that will make the task much harder.

  1. The global population is growing. Around 8 billion people are alive today. Demographers expect that number to peak at about 10.4 billion around 2086, before beginning slowly to decline.
  2. The number of people around the world who can afford to eat diets heavy in meat and dairy is rising rapidly, as hundreds of millions of people climb out of poverty and into the global middle class each decade.
  3. The climate is already changing. With each passing decade, droughts, floods, and other extreme weather events will put increasing stress on crops and livestock, reducing yields.

So, we need dramatically to cut agriculture and land use emissions even as we feed more people, and more people who want to eat meat, in a world of increasing climate disruption.

And that’s not all. We need to do all this while working to solve two other environmental crises that our current agricultural system has caused.

  • The first is the destruction of habitats, ecosystems, and species, as we convert forests, wetlands and savannahs into cropland and pasture.
Image of Amazon deforestation

Deforestation in the Amazon. Credit: Wikimedia

  • The second is the pollution of waterways and oceans by fertilizer runoff, which creates algal blooms that deprive other marine creatures of oxygen, resulting in huge ocean dead zones each year.
Image of ocean algal bloom off coast

Dead zone in the Gulf of Mexico. Credit: Phys.org

All of this means that climate solutions in the AFOLU sector will be very different from solutions in the energy sector. In the energy sector, there’s one big thing we need to do: stop burning fossil fuels. And there’s one general recipe for doing most of it: we need to switch to powering things with clean electricity, either directly (e.g. using heat pumps to heat buildings) or indirectly (e.g. using electricity to produce e-fuels for long-haul aviation).

In the AFOLU sector, we will need many different solutions. (We will discuss only some of the biggest on this page.)  As diverse as these solutions are, many of them do share a common theme: we need to produce more calories and protein per acre of land, more per input of water, more per input of fertilizer, more per unit of fertilizer runoff, and more per unit of GHG emitted. To see why this is the case, we need to start by looking at the way humanity uses land.

Land use, agricultural sprawl, and the consequences for biodiversity and climate

About 71% of the earth’s land is habitable – the other 29% consists in ice caps, deserts, glaciers, salt-flats, and the like. 1000 years ago, we used about 4% of habitable land for agriculture, and 96% was available to natural ecosystems and the species they contained. Today, humans use around half of all habitable land for agriculture – and that fraction is growing each year, as we convert forests, savannahs, and wetlands into pasture and cropland, especially in the tropics. In his brilliant book, Regenesis: Feeding the World without Devouring the Planet, George Monbiot calls this agricultural sprawl.

Image of cover of Regenesis, by George Monbiot

Agricultural sprawl is the main driver of earth’s biodiversity crisis. As we cut forests, drain wetlands, and plow savannahs under to make room for agriculture, we destroy whole ecosystems, and drive the animal and plant species that depend upon them for their habitats to extinction. We are doing this most in the world’s most biodiverse places, the tropical rainforests of Brazil, Indonesia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Madagascar, and elsewhere. The IUCN Red List identifies 28,000 known species threatened with extinction. Agriculture is responsible for 24,000 of these. And rainforests contain many more species that have never been identified.

Agricultural sprawl also directly drives the climate crisis. The natural ecosystems that agricultural sprawl encroaches on are almost all carbon sinks. These include not only forests, which store carbon in living trees, but also peatlands, which store up the carbon from hundreds or even thousands of years of dead organic matter and prevent it from decomposing, and grasslands, whose deep-rooted perennial plants sequester large amounts of carbon underground. Even the most climate-friendly forms of “regenerative agriculture” manage to sequester only a fraction of the carbon sequestered by the much more diverse natural ecosystems they replace. Land that has already been converted to agriculture is land that could be a carbon sink if it were rewilded. And when new lands are converted to agricultural use, most of the carbon that they have been sequestering is released to the atmosphere. (This is why “agriculture, forestry, and land use” (AFOLU) has to be considered together as a single sector.) 

Meat

Many factors contribute to agricultural sprawl, but one is much bigger than any of the others: our appetite for meat.

(Credit: Our World in Data)

77% of agricultural land is devoted to feeding livestock – either by providing pasture, or by growing crops, like corn and soybeans, to feed to livestock. (33% of all cropland is for crops to feed to animals.) But livestock provides only 18% of the calories that humans consume, and only 37% of the protein. Beef alone is responsible for roughly half of the land used for US diets, and half of the emissions they produce – but it provides only 3% of the calories.

The main reason for this difference between the huge amount of land we use for cows and other livestock and the small contribution they make to human nutrition is that animals – especially “ruminant” animals like cows, sheep and goats – convert only a small fraction of the calories and protein that they eat into calories and protein that humans can eat as meat. This means that an enormous amount of land is needed to feed those animals enough to produce all the meat that humans consume. Producing 100 grams of protein from beef, for example, requires 48 times more land than producing 100 grams of protein from peas.

This is a graph showing the amount of land needed to produce 100 grams of protein for different foods.

(Credit: Our World in Data)

This is why humanity’s appetite for meat is the primary driver of deforestation and habitat destruction around the world – most famously in the Amazon, where vast swathes of rainforest are burned each year in order to create pasture for cattle (which can then be sold as “grass fed” or “pasture raised”) and cropland on which to raise soy for cattle feed.

The chart below helps to give a sense of just how badly our demand for meat has crowded other animal species off the earth.  Our domesticated animals (mostly cows) together weigh twenty seven times more than all the wild land mammals left on earth put together.

Source: Visual Capitalist

Deforestation and habitat destruction are not the only ways that meat production contributes to the climate crisis.

  • Bacteria in the guts of cows and other ruminant animals produce large quantities of methane – a powerful greenhouse gas – which these animals release by burping.
  • Animal manure produces further methane emissions, and also produces 27% of anthropogenic emissions of nitrous oxide, another powerful greenhouse gas.
  • Runoff from fertilizer applied to the crops used to feed animals is another large source of nitrous oxide.

Altogether, livestock production (including the deforestation and land use change it causes) is estimated to be responsible for 14%-15% of all anthropogenic GHG emissions.

These problems are large now, and they are getting larger as the global population grows and more people join the global middle class each year. As people climb out of poverty, they are able to move from the plant-based diets to which the global poor are limited, to diets with more meat and dairy. Something like 40% of the world’s population is expected to make this shift by 2050, increasing total global consumption of animal-based foods by 70%. If everything else stays the same, this would mean a dramatic increase in GHG emissions; and it would mean clearing an additional 1.5 billion acres of forests, savannas, and wetlands for crops and pasture – an area nearly twice the size of India – and driving thousands of the species that depend on them to extinction.

Solutions to agricultural sprawl

Shifting dietary choices

A natural place to start, in thinking about solutions to the problems that expanding agriculture poses for the planet, is with a hypothetical: if everyone in the world switched to an entirely plant-based diet, we could feed the world’s current population with only 25% of the land we now devote to agriculture.

Rewilding the 75% of current agricultural land that would be freed without animal agriculture would solve the biodiversity crisis, slash GHG emissions and create enormous new carbon sinks to pull CO2 from the atmosphere. (In fact, A 2020 study in the journal Nature argued that rewilding just 15% of the highest-priority converted lands could avoid 60% of expected extinctions, and could sequester 299 gigatons of CO2, which is 14% of total emissions since the Industrial Revolution.)  Even with population growth, eliminating meat consumption would allow us to use far less land, and emit fewer agriculture-related GHGs than we do now. And as we can see from the chart above, we could gain most of these benefits without going vegan or vegetarian, just by removing beef, mutton and dairy from our diets. This is because poultry and other non-ruminant animals are much more efficient than ruminants at converting the calories and protein they consume into calories and protein that humans can eat.

These are all excellent reasons for individuals to choose to eat less meat (especially red meat) and dairy. (In fact, as Saul Griffith points out in Electrify, this is one of only a handful of choices we can make as individual consumers that add up to something significant in the climate fight.) Moreover, there’s evidence that this choice can be contagious, and can lead to slow shifts in culture. This is especially true when it is not framed as an all-or-nothing choice between being a burger-a-day meat-eater or a “pure” vegan, but is instead framed as a choice to reduce meat and dairy consumption. (Some people who make this choice call themselves “reducetarians.”)  And in fact, in many rich countries, including the US and much of Europe, the number of people who choose plant-based diets is growing.)

As significant as these individual choices are, reductions in meat and dairy consumption occurring in the developed world are now vastly outweighed by the increase in meat and dairy consumption due to population growth and the growth of the global middle class, as hundreds of millions rise out of poverty. This is why statements about what would happen if the world went vegan (or even reduced meat consumption) are merely hypothetical: the world as a whole is rapidly moving in the opposite direction. Efforts to educate consumers all over the world about the environmental (and health) consequences of heavy meat consumption are certainly worthwhile. So are efforts to change cultural practices around meat more broadly – so that, for instance, beef might be thought of as a delicacy for special, festive occasions, rather than as daily staple. On an optimistic view, these might be able to slow the trend toward ever greater meat consumption. But it would be very unwise to bet that education and cultural change alone will stop these trends. And we need to stop them rapidly in order to stop biodiversity and climate disaster.

Alternative proteins for people and animals

Here’s a second hypothetical statement: if we had a source of protein that cost less than meat from livestock and tasted just as good, many people might eat it instead, at least some of the time. Many, many startups (and some already established, diversified food companies) are now trying to make this hypothetical real.

Plant-based proteins

Companies like Beyond Meat (first product launched in 2012) and Impossible Foods (first product launched in 2016) already produce well-known plant-based burgers and sausages that taste pretty good. These companies hope to bring down costs as they scale up production – but right now, they’re still significantly more expensive than animal meat, and most people think they’re not as tasty. So long as this is true, they’re unlikely to make much of dent in demand for animal meat. However, plant-based milk, cheese and yogurt are already cutting significantly into sales of dairy products from animals – making up 15.3% of US dairy sales in 2022, and achieving $21.6 billion of sales and globally. And while plant-based meat products are still a much smaller share of the total market, new generations of startups are innovating to create plant-based chicken, fish, eggs, beef, and more that will come closer to the cost and taste of animal products.

Growing plant-based meat :

Here are some of the hundreds of companies working to bring plant-based proteins to market:

WebsiteDescriptionMedia
Beleaf VeganPlant-based food products, including shrimp, bacon, chicken, eggs, and seasoningsFood Dive
BettaFish100% plant-based tuna alternatives mainly created with proteins from the sea.Green Queen
Impossible FoodsMaker of the Impossible Burger and Impossible Pork. Products use fermentation-derived hemeForbes
The Jackfruit CompanyProduces jackfruit-based meat productsUnreasonable Group
The Vegetarian ButcherVegetarian and vegan meat products. They’ve made a commitment to go completely plant-based, but for now their website still features products with egg and dairy.NYTimes
Motif FoodWorksUS-based maker of functional ingredients for plant-based foods using fermentation.PRNewswire
Just EggPlant-based eggs.Food Dive
Prime RootsFungi-based meat and seafood products My Climate Journey podcast
MOCKUK-based producer of chef-quality, whole-cut, plant-based meat products for food service operators.
100 FoodsBrazil-based company that produces plant-based meat products, including chicken nuggets and burgers; and sauces, including barbecue and mayo under the brand “V-Mayo”
1NESSIndia-based producer of plant-based dairy alternatives.
24VeganProduces vegan fish sauce
4U Free From.Spain-based company producing a variety of vegan ice creams and sorbets, all free from six major allergens.
The Abbot’s ButcherPlant-based burgers, meat balls, and ground beef
Foi GreenFrench company that produces premium plant-based foie gras.
Acougue VeganoPlant-based butcher shop in Brazil offering frozen plant-based meat products in addition to counter service.
Actual VeggiesNew York based company focused on creating whole food plant-based burgers
ClonBioSri Lankan producer of coconut-based products, including coconut milk and cream.
Ademi FoodsUS-based company that produces plant-based shrimp.
AdeSThe leading soy-based beverage brand in Latin America
AhimsaSpanish company that produces a variety of plant-based meats and prepared meals along with tofu and seitan.
Airon Sabor e SaudeBrazilian producer of vegan ghee from non-deforestation palm oil, in addition to sweeteners, seeds/grains/ and snacks.
AIVIAProduces vegan sausage, ham, salami in Romania.
AKUAUS-based producer of kelp jerky
AlchemeatUS-based company producing whole cuts of plant-based meat.
SanygranPlant-based products and ingredients manufacturers.
All Vegetarian Inc.US-based producer of plant-based vegan egg, meat, and seafood products that bear striking resemblance to their analogues.
All Y’alls FoodsUS-based company producing plant-based jerky.
Alpha FoodsPlant-based burritos, chicken, and beef
Alt CoIndia-based producer of oat milk and vegan chocolate.
Alt FoodIndia-based company that develops plant-based milk made from grains and sprouted millets.
EatamalaU.K.-based company producing plant-based meat products, including pepperoni, hotdogs, and sausages
AmandinSpain-based company producing a variety of plant-based milks and creamers.
Amazonika MundiBrazil-based company producing various plant-based meat products, including burgers and meatballs, using Brazilian vegetables and fruits
Amica Natura Plant BasedFrozen food distributor based in Italy.
Amy’s KitchenProduces vegetarian and vegan frozen entrees, meals and meat alternatives.
aMYLKU.S.-based company producing plant-based milk.
Anamma FoodsSweden-based company that produces various plant-based meat products, as well as plant-based pizza and buns.
Angel FoodNew Zealand’s original vegan cheese company.
Annora AlimentosPlant-based dairy company in Brazil.
Apura FarmsProduces veggie burger mixes
AriviaAnimal-based cheese company in Greece with a line of plant-based cheeses under its VioFast brand.
Arizona Jerky Co.US-based company creating plant based jerky products.
ARMORED FreshArmored Fresh vegan cheese provides flavor and taste comparable to regular cow-milk based cheese by fermenting plant-based protein milk the same way as natural cheese. In addition, you don’t have to compromise nutrition as Armored Fresh vegan cheese contain protein, up to 20%,similar to cow milk cheese.
Art of GreensGermany-based company that produces plant-based meat and fish products for wholesale market of german restaurant and catering industries.
Arte DeliBrazilian producer of soy- and animal-based spreads.
Artisa CheeseAustralia-based company producing plant-based cheeses.
Artisan GrainsUK-based producer of a variety of healthy ingredient food products, including veggie burgers and nut roasts
AsantefoodsPlant based meat company producing food with Mexican flavor.
Astrid & ApornaSwedish company that produces plant-based cold cuts, sausages, burgers, and cheeses
Atlas Meat FoodsVegetarian deli featuring house-made plant-based meats that are available for foodservice.
Augason FarmsProduces canned foods branded for emergency preparedness, including emergency meal kits. Many of their products are vegetarian meat alternatives, including ground chicken, beef, and bacon bits.
Aunt Bessie’sUK-based company that produces a variety of comfort foods, including meat-free versions of some.
AurapeaAuraPea makes a plant-based meat base from chickpeas, which retains a high nutritional profile and great taste.
Australia’s OwnAustralia-based company, produces both animal-based and plant-based milk products.
AvafinaCanadian producer of plant-based protein dips and caviar.
AveyoProduces avocado-based yogurts
RixonaNetherlands-based producer of dried potato products that recently launched a plant-based cheese.
AYOUS-based producer of almond-based yogurt.
Badger’s Vegan KitchenProduces plant-based sandwich fillings, such as egg, tuna, chicken salad, and sides.
BakeartProduces various plant-based baked goods, sweets, and ice creams in India.
BananawaveUS-based company producing plant-based milk.
BarvecueBarvecue is a U.S.- based alternative meat company selling plant-based traditional BBQ ‘meats’ such as pulled pork.
Basi.coBrazil-based producer of plant-based dairy products, primarily cheeses.
BatavoBrazilian dairy company with several soy-based products.
Be & Cherry China-based online snack company producing a line of plant-based sausage snacks made from non-GMO soybeans and twice-distilled Konjac powder
Be Better My FriendAmsterdam-based developer of the plant-based butter alternative “Be Better plant-butter”, as an easy 1:1 ingredient swap with cow butter with a focus on pastry and bakery applications.
BeanitFinland-based company creating plant-based meat products from fava beans.
BeanoProduces various food products from Singaporean cuisine, all soy-based.
Beastie PlantsNetherlands-based brand of plant-based meat products, including bacon, chicken wings, and shawarma.
BEAUT BURGER HOMEUS-based company that began as a plant-based burger restaurant and now produces and sells its burgers on the market.
bedda worldGermany-based company that produces plant-based dairy products from coconut and oat
Before the ButcherU.S.-based company producing various types of plant-based burgers, under the brands “UNCUT” and “Mainstream”
Bega CheeseAustralian conventional cheese producer with some plant-based offerings.
Ben & Jerry’sUS-based company that produces a variety of non-vegan ice creams, and released a line of four certified vegan almond-milk based non-dairy flavors in February 2016, and added three additional non-dairy flavors in February 2017.
BenecolUK-based producer of animal-based dairy products, as well as some plant-based dairy products.
BenjiMexico-based company that produces plant-based meat products.
Berief FoodGerman company producing plant-based meat, plant-based milks, plant-based yogurt, and tofu.
Better BalanceMexican producer of plant-based meats, including grounds, burgers, and sausages.
Better Than MilkUS-based producer of plant-based dairy products.
BettermooCanadian plant-based dairy company
BevryIndia-based producer of oat milk and coffee beverages.
Beyond MeatPlant-based meat company, publicly traded. Produces the Beyond Burger and Beyond Sausage, among other plant-based meat products
BIC ProteinEuropean manufacturer of soy flour and soy flakes. Defatted soy and starting up textured forms for several vegetable proteins on contract base
Big Mountain FoodsCanada-based company that produces plant-based food products, including crumbles and patties
Big Sam’sIndia-based food wholesaler (primarily seafood) that also sells several vegetarian and meat-free products.
BigFood GroupGerman provider of foodservice solutions and producer of a variety of different foods, including plant-based products.
Bio-RevivalU.S.-based company that produces a variety of pearls and plant-based vegan caviar
Bio-ZentraleGerman company that produces organic baking products, including a line of vegan egg alternative
BioFood SystemsIsrael-based company that produces plant-based meat analogs.
BiograSpanish producer of organic foods from seeds, cereals, legumes, such as rice and pasta as well as plant-based meats
BiolabItaly-based producer of a variety of plant-based meat products, including deli slices, burgers, and “ready meals.”
ViomixSouth Korea-based manufacturer and distributor of ingredient substitutes and plant-based meat products
BioporaBrazilian producer of nut butters and cashew cheese sauces.
Birds EyeUS-based producer of various microwavable vegetable products, including skillet meals with plant-based meat supplied by Gardein.
BjorgFrench producer of a variety of foods including plant-based dairy products
Black Sheep FoodsCalifornia-based company that produces plant-based mutton emphasizing taste using Branched Chain Fatty Acids
Blackbird FoodsBlackbird Foods makes Seitan and Plant-Based Pizza
BluanaRomanian developer of plant-based sashimi with a molecular gastronomy approach. Products include plant-based salmon and tuna sashimi.
Blue Diamond Almond MilkBlue Diamond’s brand of almond milks and almond milk blends.
Blue FarmGermany-based producer of oat milk powder mix designed to reduce carton waste.
Blue Mountain OrganicsProduces mainly cashew, coconut and almond-based dairy-free ice cream, milk and butter
Blue Tribe FoodsMakes plant-based chicken nuggets and chicken keema
Bob’s Red MillProduces flours, beans, nuts, seeds, and texturized vegetable protein (TVP), among other products
Boca BurgerProduces a variety of plant-based meat products, including Boca burgers, chicken nuggets/patties, and breakfast products.
Bolthouse FarmsProduces pea-based milks, smoothies, and salad dressings
Bombay Cheese CompanyIndia-based company producing plant-based cheeses.
Bonsan Absolutely VeganUK-based producer of a range of plant-based meat, egg, and dairy alternatives as well as a variety of spreads and sauces/dressings.
BonsoyAustralian plant-based milk company.
BorgesIndia-based provider of Mediterranean foods, such as olive oil and pasta, that also carries nut milks.
Botanic BitesMushroom based meat replacements (burgers, pulled meat, shawarma)
Bramble PetsUS-based startup producing 100% plant-based pet food that resembles the meat they love.
BrannaturaDanish producer of plant-based food products and ingredients from cereals, including milk and baby formula alternatives.
BrotaliaSpain-based company that produces plant-based meat products, including burger patties under the brand “Anti-Burger”
BrytlifeUS-based company producing plant-based yogurt and cheese
BUBBA FoodsProduces a veggie burger, as well as a variety of animal-based products
Bveg FoodsProvides high standard plant-based foods for the global market
Bygg FoodsBygg is a next generation plant-based milk that is high in minerals and higher in calcium than cow’s milk.
CaciqueincProduces soy sausage, as well as a variety of animal-based sausages and cheeses
Cado Ice CreamProduces avocado-based dairy-free ice cream
Caju LoveU.S.-based company that produces plant-based cashew fruit meat products
CajeiroBrazil-based producer of cashew milk.
CalabizoSpain-based company that makes pumpkin sausage.
Califia FarmsProduces almond- and coconut-based milks, iced coffees, creamers and avocado-based butters.
CallowfitNetherlands-based company that makes various vegan sauces and dressing, including mayo and ceasar dressing.
Camega3Company producing Camelina oilseeds and extract and omega-3 oil and protein.
Casa VeganAfrican plant-based company that create 100% natural, delicious and nutritional plant-based alternative protein.
CashewbertProduces their own vegan cheese and also vegan cheese cultures and starter kits for home-made vegan cheese
Catalyst CreameryUS-based company producing plant-based cheese
Cathedral CityUK-based producer of conventional cheese and launched plant-based line in 2022.
Cauldron FoodsUK-based maker of tofu and vegan snacks that also has two plant-based (but not vegan) sausage offerings.
CaviaroliSpain-based producer of plant-based caviar.
Cena VeganAppears to be foodservice focused (food truck). Produces a variety of plant-based meats focused on clean label and family recipes
UnmeatPhilippines-based company that produces canned and packaged food products, including plant-based meat products under the line “unMEAT”
Cereal BioFrance-based company that produces a variety of plant-based products, including soy-based milk and meats.
CerealthyCerealthy is the world’s first oat milk single-serve pod for coffee machines that uses eco-friendly & biodegradable pods. The team roasts and mills various non-GMO whole grains and nuts, including oats, spelt, almond, pistachio, and hazelnut. Also available in single-portion sticks.
CGM Natural Frozen FoodItaly-based company that produces a variety of food products, including a veggie burger
Charoen Pokphand FoodsThailand-based agro-industrial and food conglomerate producing affordable plant-based meats under the brand “Meat Zer0”
Cheese the QueenProduces cultured plant-based cheese from fermented cashew-filled, probiotic and herby superfood.
C.H.E.W.O.W.Germany-based company that produces plant-based gyros, nuggets, etc.
CHI FoodsUS-based producer of plant-based pork made from Chi nut and free of all major allergens.
Chicago Vegan FoodsProduces Teese brand plant-based cheese that was discontinued for retail but is still available for foodservice. Produces Temptation brand plant-based ice creams (soft serve and regular varieties available). Produces Dandies brand vegan marshmallows.
CHKN Not ChickenU.S.-based company that produces plant-based chicken
CHKP FoodsU.S.-based company that develops and produces fermented plant-based milk products
Clean South US-based producer of plant-based chicken wings.
Clearspot TofuUK-based tofu producer with several plant-based meat and egg alternative offerings.
ClearspringProduces various Japanese products, including soy mince, soy chunks, and tofu.
Climax FoodsUS-based food innovation startup, using a combination of data science and food science with AI to create plant-based foods designed to out-compete animal-derived products on taste, nutrition, environmental impact, and cost.
ClonBioFamily owned Irish company with first of its kind innovative processes using barley and corn to produce plant based proteins and fiber for food and feed.
COYOUK-basked maker of plant-based ice cream, yogurt, and frozen yogurt.
Coco de ValeBrazilian producer of various coconut products, including coconut milk.
Coconut BlissPlanet-friendly frozen desserts that are Certified Organic, Certified Gluten-Free, Certified Vegan, Non-GMO Project Verified, and 100% Plant-Based
Cocos OrganicUK-based producer of probiotic-enriched coconut yogurt and kefir.
Condito FoodsGreek company that produces spreads, including a line of vegan mayo.
Cool FoodsUS-based producer of plant-based bacon bits.
CoppaUK-based ice cream brand that produces both plant-based and animal-based options.
CopraBrazilian producer of various coconut products, including coconut milk and coconut butter
Cordon GreenEcuador-based company that produces plant-based meat and cheeses, including burgers, ham, and chorizo
Core and RindMaker of cashew cheese sauce
CrackdThe UK’s first liquid plant-based egg replacement that can be used in cooking, baking, or on its own.
Crafty CounterU.S.-based company that produces a variety of Indian-inspired whole-food plant-based protein products, including plant-based hard boiled eggs under the brand “WunderEggs”
Creations FoodsMaker of functional plant proteins; snacks, cookies; cheese
Colorado CrummiesUS-based producer of plant-based meat crumbles.
CulcherdProduces plant-based cheese
Cultured FoodsPoland-based company that produces plant-based meat and dairy cooking alternatives, including a line of vegan eggs under the brand “vEGGs”
Current FoodsStartup working on plant-based fish, starting with akami tuna sashimi
Cutting VedgeUS-based producer of plant-based meat products.
Daiya FoodsProduces plant-based cheeses.
DAIZJapan-based company that produces plant-based meat using plant germinated soybeans
DamhertBelgian producer of a variety of health food products, including plant-based fish and meats.
Dancing CowIndia-based producer of plant-based dairy products.
Daring FoodsMaker of plant-based chicken
De Nieuwe MelkboerNetherlands-based company producing plant-based milk
Deep Indian KitchenUS-based producer of frozen Indian meals, including vegan and vegetarian options.
DeliciouAustralian maker of plant-based meats and spice blends.
Delight SoyProducer of soy-based meat products based in the US.
DelikeMexico-based producer of plant-based burgers and bites.
DellaNaturaPeru-based company that produces plant-based meat patties and nuggets, including hamburgers
Brew51India-based company developing precision technology to create plant-based whole-cuts of meats with superior texture, taste, nutrition, and price, primarily focused on fish
DennreeGerman producer of various food products, including plant-based milk, plant-based meat products, and tofu.
Detroit JerkyUS-based producer of plant-based jerky.
Devon Garden FoodsMaker of pea milk
Divina TeresaMakes plant-based seafood and plant-based bacon products
Domiex Eggplant Natural FoodsProduces veggie burgers, plant-based meatballs, and fried eggplant cutlets (all made of eggplant)
Don Lee FarmsSupplier & co-packer of meat and plant proteins with decades of production know-how and culinary expertise
Dr. Mannah’sGermany-based plant-based cheese manufacturers
Dr. Praeger’s Sensible FoodsProduces frozen veggie burgers, veggie-potato pancakes, appetizers/snacks/side dishes, breaded fish, gefilte fish, and kids’ products. Not all products are vegetarian/vegan, but the veggie burgers are vegan.
Dream Plant BasedProduces plant-based milks, including brand names Almond Dream, Soy Dream, and Rice Dream. Also produces almond based frozen desserts”.
DrinhoPlant-based milk brand based in Singapore.
DucocoBrazil-based producer of a variety of coconut products, including coconut milk and other coconut beverages.
DUG DrinksUK-based producer of potato milk, in original, barista, and unsweetened options.
The Dutch Weed BurgerProducers of wide range of seaweed-based products like burgers, seaweed balls, sea-nuggets, and sea-wharma.
Early Green VeganGermany-based company producing plant-based meats prioritizing long shelf lives and low refrigeration requirements
Eat the ChangeUS-based producer of snacks and teas, including a line of mushroom jerky.
Eat Up!Canada-based brand that produces plant-based products, including a line of plant-based meat and oat-based cheese
Eat with BetterIndia-based producer of jackfruit products, including a nugget.
EatKindaNew Zealand-based producer of non-dairy ice cream made from cauliflower.
Eat VappyTurkey based company that produces plant based meat and created Worlds first vegan sucuk
Eclipse FoodsUS-based maker of plant-based ice cream.
ECOPACIFICEcuador-based company that produces a variety of plant-based products, including patties, almond milk, cheese, butter, and ice cream
EcotoneFrance-based family of brands that provide low environmental impact food and drink, including dairy alternatives and plant-based meats.
Eden FoodsProduces natural packaged foods, including Edensoy organic soymilk. Eden Foods offers more than 300 organic food items. It’s North America’s oldest natural and organic food company and the largest independent manufacturer of dry grocery organic foods. Family-owned, Eden Foods began in 1968 as a natural foods cooperative.
Eggn’upIsrael-based company that produces plant-based egg using cellulose-based raw material
EggcitiblesCanadian company that produces plant-based egg alternative
EggfieldSwitzerland-based company that produces plant-based alternatives to both egg whites and whole egg, focusing on mimicking the functionality of egg proteins above all else
Eighth Day FoodsEighth Day Foods is the only company globally to provide its patented Rapid Solid-State Fermentation (RSSF) – uniquely combining the best of plants and fermentation – to create a ready-to-cook protein that excels in taste, health, versatility and affordability.
El BurritoProduces a line of soy-based meat products such as soyrizo, ground meat, taco filing, sausage, and pepperoni
ElmhurstUS-based company that produces nutmilks (cashew, walnut, almond, or hazelnut varieties available).
Else NutritionPlant-based infant and toddler formula
Emmi DessertItaly-based ice cream brand that offers some plant-based options.
EndoriGerman plant-based meat company
Ener-GU.S.-based manufacturer of a variety of wheat-free foods, including egg replacer
PLANTSTRONGMaker of plant-based meals, meal-planners, and “rescue” program – encouraging people to go plant-based
EnzymoFitIsreal-based company develping enzyme-based production process for the plant-based protein market.
ESTIFood company with primary focus on alternative meats and cheeses
Everest Soya Bean ProductsMalaysian manufacturer that roduces various soy products, including plant-based meats.
Everything LegendaryBlack-owned gourmet plant-nased food manufacturer based in the US; as seen on Shark Tank
EvLogimenoPlant-based cheese company based in Greece.
Evolution MeatsMaker of plant-based kebabs, shawarma, gyros, satay, and sausages
Evolved FoodsEvolved Foods is a sustainable food company based out of Bangalore, India, that offers ready-to-cook, versatile, 100% plant-based ingredients to make your everyday cooking nutritious and protein-rich.
Ezaki GilicoJapanese food company that offers some plant-based milks.
FabasFabas offers a broad variety of bean-based products, from hummus and burgers to ingredients for the processing industry.
Fable FoodsAustralia-based company producing meaty food from shiitake mushrooms and a short list of all-natural, minimally processed plant-based ingredients.
FabuminIsrael-based company developing plant-based egg white substitute using Aquafaba.
Falafel BroPlant-based street food in Russia.
FattasticSingapore-based company that produces plant-based fat for range of alternative protein products
Faux GrasBelgian company that produces plant-based Foie gras.
Faux Lox FoodsUS-based producer of plant-based smoked salmon.
Fauxmagerie ZengarryProduces artisanal plant-based cashew cheese
Fazenda Futuro Brazil-based company producing plant-based meat products.
Feed Your Head FoodsUS-based producer of plant-based meats, cheeses, and dips.
Chi SiamoItalian producer of plant-based cold cuts, cubed meat, and burgers.
Fenn FoodsAustralia-based company that produces plant-based products, including chicken, beef, and schnitzel, primarily under the brand “vEEF”
FervenaNetherlands-based company making plant-based cheeses.
Finnebrogue ArtisanThe UK’s leading artisan food producer.
FinsbratenNorwegian meat company, produces both animal- and plant-based meats
FioravantiItalian food company with an offering of veggie nuggets.
Fish Vorm FeldGerman-based plant based seafood company
Fish PeasLine of plant-based seafood products created by conventional seafood company, Karavela
FKF Vegan Peru-based company that produces a variety of plant-based meats, including sausages, meatballs, ground beef, salami, sausage, and ham and cheese
Flexitarian BastardsNetherlands-based company that creates vegan and vegetarian snacks and meals to promote a healthier lifestyle and consciousness of the environment without sacrificing familiarity and taste.
Float FoodsSingapore-based company that is producing plant-based egg products through their brand “OnlyEg”
FlordesalveganoBrazilian plant-based hamburger company.
FlowFoodProduces plant-based meats including mince, burgers, and meatballs.
Follow Your HeartProduces plant-based cheeses, dips, spreads, dressings, Vegenaise, and the VeganEgg
FomilkIsraeli plant-based dairy company.
FoMu Ice CreamProduces coconut milk-based ice cream. Clean label/artisanal
Food HeavenUK-based producer of various plant-based dairy products including ice cream, whipped cream, and creamer.
Food SquaredUK-based company creating whole-cut plant-based seafood.
Foodies VeganUS-based producer of soy-free plant-based meat products.
Fora FoodsPlant-based butter company in the US, whose first offering is FabaButter made from aquafaba.
Forager ProjectProduces cashew milk, cashew yogurt, juices, shakes, smoothies, and snacks
Fortune FoodsSingapore-based company that makes soy chunks
Franklin FarmsUS-based producer of a range of plant-based meats, including veggie burgers, sausage patties and links, and meatballs.
Freaks of NatureMakes plant-based desserts, including, puddings, cheesecake, and mousse.
FREDAG AGSwiss conventional meat company that also produces plant-based options.
Free and EasyUK-based brand of various plant-based foods, including plant-based mixes for egg replacement, gravy, and cheese sauce.
Freely VeganUS-basesd culinary company focused on making egg-replacements, seasonings, and desert mixes.
Fresh Start FauxmageProduces artisan vegan cheeses
FreshiezPlant-based meat delivered to your doorstep in a meatless butcher box. Made of mushrooms, potatoes, and black beans (soy-free, wheat-free, and dairy-free).
FreshwoofIndia-based company producing sustainable, plant-based dog food
FriedasSpeciality produce company with a line of soy chorizo (Soyrizo)
FrikyRussian company producing plant-based dairy alternatives.
FrizetaBrazil-based direct-to-consumer online frozen food retailer that carries many meat-free and plant-based options.
Fry Family FoodSouth African company producing a variety of plant-based meats.
Fuji Plant Protein LabsJapanese company that produces semi-finished ingredients for use in plant-based products and provides co-man services.
Fumacense AlimentosBrazilian producer of various grain-and bean-based products, including rice milk.
FunkiEstonian producer of mycoprotein-based meat alternative.
Funny NaniIndia-based producer of plant-based paneer made from watermelon seeds.
Gaias FarmingLondon based company processing hemp for the food & beverage sector. Consumer Facing. Focus on dairy-alternatives.
Galpao CucinaBrazil-based producer of plant-based meat, seafood, and dairy products.
GardeinProduces Gardein brand plant-based meat alternatives, including chicken, beef, fish, pocket meals, and holiday items. Widely available in the frozen section of grocery stores. Gardein HQ is in Canada, but they also have a branch in California. Pinnacle HQ is in NJ.
Garden GourmetGermany company that produces various plant-based meat products.
GeronimoBrazilian maker of a variety of vegetable- and grain-based meats and dishes.
Get Plant’dAustralian maker of plant-based meats, including bacon, deli slices, and whole muscle chicken and duck.
GK FoodsOn-Demand Food Innovation team with expertise in Food Design & Manufacturing. We help entrepreneurs discover & implement novel ideas iteratively. Formulating the perfect plant-based ingredients, we are able to help entrepreneurs with variety of food applications.
Galaxy FoodsProduces Go Veggie brand lactose-free cheese (both vegan and non-vegan varieties available)
GoGoodJapan-based oat milk company
Gold&GreenProduces pulled oats as a ground meat substitute
Golden PlatterThree generation protein manufacturing company specializing in batter/breaded products, center-of-the plate items and frozen meals. Products include plan-based nuggets, burgers, steaks and deli-meats.
Golden Wing Barley MilkUS-based producer of barley milk.
Goldie LoxUS-based startup producing a plant-based lox alternative from whole carrots.
GolferaAnimal-based meat company in Italy that has a line of plant-based deli slices and plant-based burgers.
Good Carma FoodsSells various plant-based cheeses in the UK.
Good Catch FoodsUS producer of plant-based seafood, including flaked fish products like crab cakes, seafood burgers, and tuna.
GooddotMakers of plant-based Indian-style meat
Good HempUK-based company that produces plant proteins, plant-based milks, and CBD oils.
Good Karma FoodsProduces flax-based milks and plant-based dips, sour cream
GoodmylkUS-based company producing plant-based milks.
GOOD PLANeT FOODSMaker of plant-based cheese shreds and slices
Good Seed BurgerWhole foods plant-based veggie burgers
Good FoodsMaker of plant-based queso and other dips
Gosh! FoodsProduces plant-based burgers, bites, and sausages.
GoshenBrazilian producer of plant-based meat products such as burgers, deli slices, and sausages.
Gourmet Evolution FoodsU.S.-based company that produces plant-based deli sliced meat
GrabenordIndia-based producer of several vegan products including a few cheese and butter items.
GranoseUK-based producer of plant-based meat dry mixes.
GranovitaUK-based producer of plant-based foods, including meat-free pates and meat-free canned meals.
Green KitchenBrazil-based consulting for food companies interested in sustainability.
Green LegendA line of plant-based meatballs, sausages, and deli slices.
Green Rebel FoodsIndonesia-based food tech start-up producing and supplying plant-based beef and chicken from plants, with an emphasis on authentic Asian flavors
Green Slice FoodsProduces plant-based deli slices, hot dogs, pepperoni, and cheeses. Most products contain eggs.
GreenforceGermany-based company that produces plant-based meat, eggs, and dairies
Greenleaf FoodsU.S.-based company that produces a wide variety of plant-based meat and dairy products under the brands “Lightlife” and “Field Roast Grain Meat Co.”
Green VieCyprus-based company that makes wide range of vegan cheeses.
GreenwiseWe work with green technologies that allow for the production of plant-based products with a high fiber structure, which gives our meat alternatives the chewiness and bite of real meat.
GrilliesUS-based producer of mediterranean Halloumi cheeses that also offers a plant-based option.
Gringrin FoodsSpain-based company producing a variety of plant-based meat and cheeses
GrinGrin FoodsSpanish-based company that produces plant-based meat and plant-based dairy products.
Growthwell FoodsSingapore-based manufacturer of plant-based products, as well as sourcing, research, development, and customizing OEM for sauces, pastes, and ingredients
Grupo MantiqueriaBrazil-based egg company that also produces plant-based mayonnaise and egg-replacement products under the name “n.ovo”
GUSTA FoodsMaker of vegan cheese and sausages
GutfriedGerman producer of deli meats, with some plant-based offerings that include egg (Ohne Fleisch line).
Halsa FoodsProduces oat-based yogurts
Halsans KokProduces vegetarian meat substitutes in Sweden.
HaoFoodChina based company that produced alternative poultry protein. Plant-based chicken from peanut is Haofood’s first innovation.
Happy CocoNetherlands-based company that produces plant-based yogurts and ice creams.
Happy Ocean FoodsGermany-based company producing plant-based seafood
HappyVoreFrench plant-based meat startup offering a range of beef patties, nuggets, minced meat, chunks and sausages.
HariMaker of plant-forward plant-based meats and soups from beans
Hari&CoFrench producer of plant-based meats from pulses, such as lentils, chickpeas, and flageolet. Distributes its products through traditional retail and schools.
Harmless HarvestMaker of dairy free yogurt and milk (and coconut drinks)
Harvest BSydney Australia-based company that is building a smart ingredient system to make plant-based meat easy to make taste great and a superfood.
HavredalsSwedish company producing plant moldable plant-based meats and oat milk
Health Sources NutritionChina-based company that produces health food ingredients.
Heartbest FoodsMexico’s first food tech company aimed at producing plant-based dairy alternatives.
Hebei CofcoNetherlands-based company that supplies nuts, superfoods, and seeds.
Heck FoodUK-based company that produces animal- and plant-based meat products.
HeggSingapore-headquartered company that produces tasty, healthier, and more sustainable plant-based egg products.
HeidihoProduces plant-based cheeses and dipping sauces.
Heidi’s Real FoodUS-based company creating plant-based meatballs.
Hello Plant FoodsHello Plant Foods is a company that develops vegetable meat of high gastronomic quality.
Hennig-OlsenNorway-based company that produces ice cream, including some vegan options.
Herba Ingredients European manufacturer of pea and faba bean protein concentrates. Native, precooked, and textured forms are available of our proteins.
HerbYvoreSingapore-based company that produces plant-based cheeses
HeroproteinChina-based company that produces plant-based meat using high moisture extrusion technology
HeuraFoodsProducers of a variety of plant-based meats
Hey MaetChina-based company that produces plant-based beef and pork products
High PeaksUS-based company that produces plant-based meat sausages, made with only ingredients you know and can pronounce!
Hilary’s Eat WellProducer of brand of veggie burgers with focus on natural ingredients
Hochland GroupGermany-based company that produces cheese, including some plant-based options.
Hodo SoyProduces tofu, soy milk, soy-based meat alternatives including Chipotle’s Sofritas, ready-to-eat meals, and yuba (thin veil that forms on the surface of heated soymilk)
Honestly TastyUK-based producer of plant-based artisanal cheeses.
Hongchang BiotechnologyChina-based company producing and supplying a variety of plant-based meat products and food ingredients
Hooked FoodsSwedish maker of plant-based seafood.
Hooray FoodsUS-based company that produces plant-based bacon.
Hoow FoodsSingapore-based company that produces egg products, under the brand “Hegg,” using an AI-ML platform for enhancing nutritional profiles of foods and ingredients, under the proprietary title “RE-GENESYS”
HoyaTaiwanese producer of cholesterol-free soy-based jerky and meat products, including breaded shrimp, chicken nuggets, burgers, and ground beef.
Hungry PlanetUS-based producers of chef-crafted plant-based meats including beef, chicken, pork, turkey, lamb, crab, chorizo, Italian sausage, chorizo and crab cakes; all with taste & texture matching conventional meat and seafood, and demonstrably superior nutrition.
I AM NUT OKUK-based company producing plant-based cheeses
I MELT 4UNetherlands-based brand of plant-bases cheeses.
ICL Food SpecialtiesGlobal food ingredients company that supplies plant-based ingredients to food and beverage companies.
LoostdorfUkraine-based brand of plant-based milk.
IgloUK-based frozen food manufacturer that offers a couple of plant-based fish and meat products.
Impact FoodWe reimagine sustainable food systems through delicious and nutritious plant-based seafood.
Imposter MeatsIndia-based producer of plant-based meat alternatives.
Improved NatureLow cost plant-based meat that is sold as a B2C finished product or as a B2B dry ingredient for further processing
In a NutshellPlant-based cheese company in the Philippines.
IncogmeatoA product line from MorningStar Farms that is meant to cook, taste, and look like real meat.
IncrivelBrazilian company producing plant-based meat and seafood under the Incredible Range brand name.
InnovoproDeveloped a technology designed to extract a 70-percent-chickpea protein concentrate.
Int FoodItalian producer (and owner of several producers) of plant-based milks.
NankaMalaysia-based company that produces plant-based and hybrid meat-plant products, primarily under the brand “Nanka”
Isola BioItalian producer of various plant-based milks.
Itoham FoodJapan-based company that manufactures, processes, and sells meat products, including a line of plant-based meat products
VeghahnGerman plant-based meat producer.
Jack & Annie’sUS-based producer of various plant-based meat from jackfruit.
Jack & BryU.K.-based company producing a variety of plant-based meats made from jackfruit
Jack & FriendsJack & Friends is a company embodying inclusivity through its mission to craft products you can feel good about eating, regardless of your lifestyle or diet. Our first product line is a plant-based jerky made from jackfruit (the “Jack” in our name) and pea protein that is not only vegan and top 8 allergen-free, but also a good source of protein and fiber with no added sugar.
Jacky F.Germany-based company producing jackfruit-based meats
Jay Joy“The First Plant Creamery of France. We make alternatives to cheese based on organic almond milk and cashew nuts.”
Jensen MeatUS-based foods that processes beef to patties and also manufactures plant based meat alternatives.
Shroom JerkyProduces mushroom-based jerky
JJWintSingapore-based producer of a variety of vegan and vegetarian products, including soy-based meat and fish products.
My JinkaU.S.- Based plant-based seafood company.
Jinzi Ham CompanyChina-based company involved in processing and sales of meat products and related by-products, featuring a line of plant-based meat patties
JOIUS-based company producing plant-based milks.
Juicy MarblesSlovenian company producing plant-based whole cut meats (filet mignon)
Jules Vegan FoodsProduces artisanal cashew cheeses
Julienne BrunoUK-based startup producing artisan cheese for food lovers from soy.
Jungle KitchenAPAC-based producer of jackfruit mince.
Vegan JunkstarNetherlands-based brand of vegan sauces, including mayo and cheese sauce.
Jus AmazinIndia-based company that produces nut butters and spreads as well as one offering of almond milk.
Just WholeFoodsUK-based producer of a variety of plant-based foods, including two dry mixes for burgers and sausages.
Just Dig InIndia-based producer of plant-based meat alternatives.
VitmarkUkraine based company that produces plant-based milk, fruit smoothies, baby food, juices
Rest of the WorldNew Zealand-based company creating plant-based milk
KARANAPlant-based meat mince and meat shreds
Karma KebabNetherlands-based company that is producing plant-based lamb
KarunaIndian producer and retailer of vegan and vegetarian food products, including a variety of plant-based meats, cheeses, and milks.
Kashew Cheese DeliProduces plant-based artisan cheese in Vietnam.
Fazer AitoWide variety of oat and other plant based products
Katharos FoodsIndia-based company creating plant-based cheeses.
Kaya FoodsProduces plant-based yogurt and plant-based meat in Bulgaria.
Kern TecAustria-based upcycling company that makes milk alternatives, spreads, seeds, oils, etc. from pits of apricots, cherries, and plums.
Kewpie ShopJapan-based company that produces a variety of condiments and products, including a line of soymilk-based scrambled egg under the brand “HOBOTAMA”
KiddiwinksUS-based producer of chocolate and vanilla milks for children made from a blend of chickpea, oat, and chicory.
Kim’s Simple MealsProduces a line of boxed meat alternatives and meals. Heritage Health Foods is Seventh Day Adventist-owned, and Kim’s Simple Meals was founded by Adventists. Kim’s Simple Meals products are popular in the Adventist community.
Kinda Co.UK-based company producing plant-based cheeses.
Kindness.Plant-based food technology startup offering formulation and processing knowhow.
KioeneItalian producer of plant-based meats.
Kite HillProduces plant-based cheeses, yogurts, and raviolis.
Kosher Ice CreamKosher ice cream company with a broad selection of vegan flavors
Know Your FoodU.S.-based company that produces plant-based, frozen fast-food alternatives, including burgers, for kids aged 9-17.
Kojo JerkyUS-based producer of plant-based jerky.
KokirikiVegan plant-based cold meats, that look and taste just like a range of cold cuts.
Koko Dairy FreeUK-based producer of vegan milk, cheese, yogurt, and spreads.
KOLIOS SA Greek DairyGreek dairy company that also offers some plant-based cheese products.
KyomeiU.K.-based company producing proteins using plants and photosynthesis as a production system to naturally produce meat proteins
l’herbivoreSeitan manufacturer based in Germany.
La Ferme du BioFrance-based producer of conventional meat that also offers vegan options.
VeggisserieFrance-based company producint vegan ice cream and macaroons.
La CarletaSpain-based company producing plant-based cheeses.
La Marmite VegetaleFrance-based company creating plant-based cheeses.
La Petite FromagerieFrench producer of animal-based cheeses, cream cheeses, along with a few vegan options
La PuritaPeru-based company that produces a range of plant-based foods including granola, chips, chocolate, peanut butters and a few plant-based dairy alternative products including almond & cashew yogurt and cream products
LarobleriaMaker of mushroom based dips and other mushroom based products
SoyarieCanada-based company producing plant-based meat products.
La VieMaker of plant-based bacon selling under the Grand Gousier brand and B2B (formerly 77Foods)
LactasoySoy milk company based in Thailand.
Leite JussaraBrazilian producer of conventional dairy along with a few soy beverages.
LavvaU.S.-based company producing plant-based yogurt and milk products using the “pili” nut, with a focus on incorporating probiotics and health benefits, including
Le-CoquinSouth Africa-based company producing plant-based cheeses.
Le GrandCanadian producer of organic plant-based yogurts, cheese spreads, and butter made without palm oil.
Le PaponduFrance-based company making plant based, whole egg alternative, with its substitute coming in a shell and bearing a distinctive egg and yolk separation—just like a real one from chickens.
Leaf CusineProduces cashew-based cheeses
Leaf FoodsMexican maker of vegan cheese that contains vitamin B12.
LechiaUS-based producer of dairy-free milks for retail, e-comm, and food service using almond, oat, chia/flax seed blends, or macadamia nut blends.
Petit VeganneFrench brand of cashew-based cheeses.
Les Nouveaux AffineursFrench producer plant-based cheese and spreads.
Las Tres GunasPeru-based company producing plant-based dairy, including vegan cheeses butters, and yogurts
Let’s Plant MeatThailand-based company that produces plant-based meat products
Liang YiSingapore-based distributor of a variety of vegetarian and vegan meat products
Shaka HarryLiberate Foods makes “plant-based meat for the Indian palata” including samosas, breakfast sausage, and chicken momos.
Libre AlimentosBrazil-based producer of frozen plant-based foods, including some plant-based meat products.
LifeCoBrazilian company producing soy-based cheeses and desserts.
LikemeatGermany-based company that produces a variety of plant-based meat alternatives.
Lima FoodBelgian producer of healthier versions of common foods, including vegan milk, proteins, and snacks.
Linda McCartney FoodsMaker of a variety of plant-based meats from soy
Lisanatti FoodsProduces almond, soy, and rice-based cheeses. Not all products are vegan (products mostly cater to lactose intolerant customer base).
Little Island CreameryCoconut creamery based in New Zealand.
Little BanditsU.K.-based company that produces soy-free coconut yogurt aimed at children
Live YumIndia-based producer of vegan and allergen-free cheeses.
Living HarvestProduces Tempt brand hemp milk and coconut hemp milk. Also hemp yogurt and tofu
LIVING JINU.S.-based company that produces agar-agar powder as a substitute for gelatin and other plant-based products for cooking, such as a powder-based cheese called “Magic Cheese”
House PartyProduces plant-based cheese dips
Loki FoodsIceland-based company producing plant-based seafood products.
Loma LindaU.S.-based brand that produces various plant-based meat products, including burgers, sausages, tuna (under the title “Tuno”), and taco filling (under the title “Modern Menu”)
Lord of TofuGermany-based company producing tofu-based meat and seafood products.
Louisville Vegan Jerky CoProduces plant-based jerky. TVP based, uses Kentucky sorghum as a sweetener (similar to maple syrup)
Love BUDSAustralia-based company producing plant-based meat products.
Love HandleSingapore-based plant-based butcher that produces its own proteins and partners with other producers to make unique products that are available in-person and online.
LoveSeitanBulk producer of seitan
LowkoBrazil-based producer of low-calorie ice cream products that also offers several vegan options.
LS Natural FoodsUS-based company producing plant-based jerky
LupintaLupin-based meat and chicken replacements, and tempeh
LuyaSwitzerland-based company creating plant-based meat products.
MacsweenU.K.-based company producing plant-based lamb and beef haggis products.
LUVEGermany-based company producing dairy alternatives made with lupine
Magic BeansFrance-based company that produces plant-based meat from pea protein
MaishaProduces plant-based cheese
Malibu MylkUS-based company producing plant-based milk.
Malk OrganicsProduces cold-pressed nut milks (almond, pecan, and cashew based), as well as cold brew coffee
MallaktoRussian vegan cooperative that produces soy products.
MandorellaItalian producer of almond-based cheeses, creams, sauces, and ingredients.
Marciano VeganoPeru-based company that produces plant-based dairy, cheese, and chicken nuggets.
MafrigOne of the largest beef producers in the world, based in Brazil. Partners with ADM to produce plant-based options under the brand “PlantPlus Foods.”
MarinFoodPrimarily makes animal-based margarine and cheese, but also offers a few plant-based options.
Maru-san Soymilk and miso maker based in Japan.
Marvelous FoodsPlant-based food company in China that produces dairy-free coconut yogurt
Mauna LoaUS-based producer of a range of macadamia nut products, including non-GMO dairy-free ice cream.
Meat the MushroomUK-based producer of mushroom bacon.
Meatless KingdomIndonesian-based company that produces Indonesia-inspired foods from locally-sourced plant-based ingredients that is both tasty and has a higher nutritional profile
Mediterraneabio BIOVEGProduces plant-based burgers, tofu, tempeh, and seitan
Meat Health AlternativePlant-based meat company based in the UK.
MeicaGerman sausage maker that also offers vegetarian options.
Melt OrganicsProduces Melt brand butter alternatives and cheese spreads
MerguloU.S. company that produces plant-based butter under the line “CASHEW NUT-BUT*ERS”
Mespetites FoliesFrench producer of vegan Ice cream without added sugar or gluten.
Meta BurgerStartup QSR serving plant-based burgers
Meta MeatChina-based company focus on independent research and development, production and sales of plant protein artificial meat and related products.
MetaromUS and European based company specialize in sweet and savory flavor solutions with an expertise in formulation flavors and masking agent for nutraceutical application, and in particular for protein based products. Our Acti’sens product line features Masking Agents, Bitter Blockers, Sweetness Enhancers and Fat Replacers. Clients are encouraged to work hand in hand with our R&D team as we develop products tailored to your needs.
Mia Green FoodsUS-based producer of Italian inspired plant-based deli meat.
Mighty FoodIndia-based producer of ready-to-eat plant-based meat and seafood alternatives.
Mighty PeaUK-based company producing plant-based milk.
The Mighty Meat KitchenProduces plant-based meat
MigrosSwitzerland-based large retail company and online supermarket, including a plant-based picnic egg and yolk under the brand “V-Love” through their subsidiary “ELSA”
MilkUpIndonesian producer of dairy products that also makes a vegan coconut-based yogurt.
Milk 2.0NZ-based company producing plant-based milks
MilkadamiaUS-based producer of dairy made from macadamia nuts.
MilkienProducer of plant based milk products
Milkin OatsIndia-based producer of oat milk.
Mill ItUS-based company producing plant-based buttermilk
Mimic SeafoodSpanish seafood company making tuna from tomatoes
Minor FiguresUK-based producer of barista brews and milks made from oats.
MirukuNew Zealand-based startup using molecular farming to create animal-free proteins.
Misha’s Kind FoodsUS-based brand of dairy-free cheeses made from organic cashew and almond milk, blended with locally sourced fresh herbs, vegetables, and spices, culminating in real cheese, made in the traditional way.
Miyoko’s KitchenProduces artisanal cultured nut-based cheeses
MIYOSHI Oil & FatJapanese BtoB edible oil manufacturing company. We are focusing on plant-based seasoning oil_ lard taste and beef tallow taste . We have just started business in the US.
Morice DessertsFrench start up that created a broad choice of delicious rice-based alternatives to yogurts and creams
Modena FunghiItaly-based, FDA registered company that produces and commercializes a variety of plant-based burgers
Modern MeatPlant-based ground beef/burgers and plant-based crab cakes
Moku FoodsMushroom and plant-based jerky
MommusSpain-based company producing plant-based cheeses
Mon Surgele VegetalFrench company that makes variety of plant-based meats along with other gluten-free, vegetarian, and vegan products.
MondarellaGerman producer of high nutritional value craft cheese made from plants.
Monekys by the SeaPlant-based seafood in the Netherlands.
Monty’sU.S.-based company that produces plant-based cream cheese & butter
MooalaUS-based producer of almond milk, oat milk, and banana milk.
Moocho FoodsUS-based producer of dairy-free shreds and spreads.
Indian company producing plant-based milk.
Moolec ScienceUK science-based food ingredient company producing real animal proteins in plants through Molecular Farming technology.
MoolissUS-based company producing plant-based cheese
MoonmealsMaker of plant-based grab and go meals
MorgashopSwitzerland-based company that produces a variety of cooking and baking products for vegetarian dishes, including a line of egg replacer
MorningStar FarmsProduces Morningstar Farms brand meat alternatives, including breakfast products, chicken, beef, veggie burgers, bowls, and more. Widely available in mainstream grocery stores.
Mouse’s FavouriteUK-based producer of plant-based artisan cheese.
Moving Mountains FoodsMaker of the B12 Burger
Mozza FoodsDeveloping the science to create real dairy cheese from plants
Mozzarisella Italian producer of sprouted rice-based mozzarella cheese.
Mr. & Mrs. WatsonMr. & Mrs. Watson is a cheese-focused plant-based food tech innovation brand and food bar.
Mr.Dewie’s Cashew CreameryProduces cashew-based ice cream
Mr. VeggyBrazilian maker of plant-based burgers, coxinha (chicken croquettes) and other foods
Unreal DeliMaker of plant-based clean label deli meat (corned beef)
Muscoo di GranoProduces plant-based meat
Must LoveUS-based producer of non-dairy ice cream sweetened with dates, not refined sugars.
Mwah!UK-based producer of plant-based diary products.
VemondoItalian brand of plant-based meats.
My Plant DeliSpecializes in vegan meats and cheese in Malaysia
MyeyMaker of plant-based egg substitute for cooking and baking
MyLifeAustralia-based company producing plant-based cheeses.
MylkmanUK-based company creating plant-based milk.
NaarmannGermany-based supplier of high-quality, semi-perishable and varied dairy products in the catering, restaurant and food processing industries; also has a line of plant-based dairy under the brand name “We Love Plants.”
Nabati FoodsCanada-based company manufacturing plant-based frozen and chilled products. Nabati Foods Inc was founded by two passionate partners as a family-owned business out of love for clean whole natural plant-based foods.
We hope to inspire those who value their health to indulge in real, clean, plant-based foods for a nourished, sustainable and compassionate life.
Nada MooU.S.-based company producing coconut milk-based ice cream
Namaste FoodsU.S.-based company that produces a variety of gluten and allergy-free baking ingredients, including a plant-based egg replacer
Nana CremeProduces allergen-friendly banana-based non-dairy ice cream
MooftCanada-based company with the largest federally approved Indian dairy in North America that specialises in Indian dairy & food products, but also has a few plant-based meat alternatives.
Nancy’s YogurtUS-based company that produces dairy- and oat-based yogurts
NasoyaUS-based company that is part of parent company in Korea grounded in a 40-year rich history specializing in plant-based foods (tofu) and plant-based meat products. The sub brand for our products is Plantspired which provides simple, delicious and convenient meal solutions.
Nate’s Meatless MeatballsIndia-based brand of plant-based meatballs, Indian-inspired entrees, and falafel (all sold frozen).
NatumiGerman plant-based milk brand.
NaturgreenSpanish company that produces various plant-based food products, including dairy and egg replacements.
NaturaCanada-based producer of plant-based milks.
NaturavegBrazil-based producer of meltable dairy-free cheese.
Nature-moiProduces vegan cheeses
Nature’s CharmThai company that produces vegan dessert toppings, including coconut-based condensed milk and whipping cream.
NaturinniBrazilian maker of plant-based bacon from potato and eddoe
Naturli-FoodsMaker of plant-based meat and dairy
NatursoySpanish company that produces various organic products, including plant-based meats.
NatuterraBrazilian Producer of plant-based dairy products.
NeatProduces ground beef alternatives made of ground nuts; produces the “neategg” (to be used as a binder only).
NeggstGermany-based company producing plant-based eggs.
NemolokoProduces plant-based milks and creams in Russia.
NEOPLANTTaiwan-based company that specializes in authentic Asian-flavored plant-based products.
Nepra FoodsUS-based multi-category market leader in delicious allergen-free and plant-based food ingredients and consumer products.
New Barn OrganicsProduces organic almond milk, as well as a buttery spread
New BreedUS-based producer of plant-based ground meat, burgers, and sausages that are free of the top eight allergens.
New OceanCanada-based brand that produces plant-based seafood products, including scallops, crab cakes, and fish sticks
New School FoodsCanadian producer of plant-based whole-cut seafood.
New Wave FoodsU.S.-based company producing algae-based shrimp products
NewFieldsU.S.-based company that produces wholesale plant-based cheese products.
NEXT MEATSJapan-based plant-based meat product developer currently expanding into the larger APAC region and in the US. Our major product lines are: gyudon (Japanese style sweet and salty beef bowl), yakiniku (Japanese style Korean BBQ), and original burger patties.
NEXT! FoodsNEXT! makes plant-based bacon strips and plant-based chicken chunks.
Real Vegetable MeatPlant-based meat and cheese sauce for foodservice and private label. Made from whole foods ingredients (soy-free, wheat-free, and dairy-free).
NFA FoodsCalifornia-based company that produces plant-based egg and meat products
Nichirei Foods Inc.Frozen Food Top Manufactures in Japan
Eat NimbleUS-based company producing frozen single serve plant-based entrees for retail consumers.
Sulian FoodChina-based brand enterprise specializes in plant-based series products R&D, manufacturing, sales, and technological innovation
Ninth Avenue FoodsUS-based manufacturing facility for dairy, non-dairy, and plant-based beverages.
Nippon Ham FoodsJapan-based company that engages in the manufacturing, processing, and sale of processed and fresh meats, and prepared foods, including plant-based meat
NoBull BurgerProducer of gourmet veggie burgers
No Evil FoodsPlant-based chicken, sausage, pork, and chorizo
No MeatU.K.-based plant-based meat company
No Meat FactoryCanada-based company that produces plant-based products for third-party customers.
NomomooRomania-based, family-run startup that develops nut-based cheese, butter, faux gras, and sauces.
Nobell FoodsU.S.-based company developing plant-based affordable substitutes to animal products.
Noble Health FoodDevelops and markets plant-based meats in Belgium.
Noble JerkyCanadian producer of plant-based jerky.
NoboProduces plant-based ice cream in Ireland.
NotCoChilean company that produces plant-based dairy products including mayo, milk, yogurt, and cheese.
Nothing FishySwedish producer of plant-based frozen fish substitutes with the taste, texture, look, and smell of real fish.
Novah NaturalBrazilian producer of cashew-based cheese dips.
Novameat3D printed plant-based meat
NovishProducer of fish cakes, nuggets, and fingers from peas and wheat
Nowadays California-based company that produces plant-based nuggets emphasizing simplicity and nutritional profile
Nummy NibblesU.S.-based food company specializing in gourmet spice blends, sauces, and plant-based egg mixes
NubochaUS-based producer of vegan, no added sugar, low calorie, clean label, delicious gelato crafted with just 3 main ingredients.
Nude.Nude is the first carbon-neutral plant-based milk on the Brazilian market.
NudjFrance-based patties and nuggets made from jackfruit.
Nueva VidaEcuador-based company that produces plant-based meat products, including sausages
NUMU CheeseProduces non-dairy mozzarella cheese for foodservice
Nush FoodsUK-company producing plant-based dairy
Nut CultureSingapore-based company producing plant-based cheese.
Nutcase VeganWhole grain, bean, and nut-based meats
NuteeseHong Kong-based company that uses traditional fermentation to produce plant-based cheese products
NutivaUS-based producer of nutritional supplements and food products, including plant-based ghee and shortening.
NutpodsProduces dairy-free creamers under the brand name Nutpods. Nutpods is now the highest reviewed dairy-free creamer on Amazon.com and was recently named one of the innovative beverages of 2016 by the Specialty Food Association.
Nutree LifeUK-based manufacturing and service provider to the plant-based protein industry.
NUTRIQUOIndia-based producer of plant-based omelets.
NutriSoySingapore-based producer of soymilk with oats and quinoa.
Nuts for CheeseCanada-based company that produces plant-based cheese and butter
Nuttin OrdinaryProduces cultured cashew-based cheeses
Nuwo FoodsMexican producer of plant-based meat and dairy alternative mixes without soy or gluten.
O BrancoBrazilian creator of an innovative, nutrient-focused dairy-free milk.
OateyIndia-based oat milk company.
OatlyProduces oat-based milk
Nanak FoodsIndia-based oatmilk company.
Oats’UpPlant-based oat milk
OatsideSingapore based company focused on producing creamy oat milk products.
OATZarellaUS-based brand of oat cheese and cheesecakes.
Ocean Hugger FoodsTomato sushi (Ahimi)
Ocean SecretsIsrael-based company producing vegan caviar.
OddlygoodUS-based producer of oat yogurt and various plant-based cheeses for foodservice.
OffmeatIndia-based producer of plant-based meat alternatives, including nuggets, kebabs, and burger patties.
Off-Piste ProviosionsPlant-based jerky producer in New Zealand.
OGGSMaker of Aquafaba egg substitute for baking; vegan bakery
OjahProduces plant-based chicken strips. Known for Plenti®, one of the first of such ingredients on the market and is well-known as the highest quality ‘plant-based chicken chunks’ available worldwide. In 2019, was working on first plant-based ribs called Heppi™
OLA-BIOOrganic food distributor based in Greece.
Olijck FoodsMaker of burgers and pasta from seaweed
OlikSweden based company that make vegan cheese.
OMG MeatPlant-based meat and seafood brand developed by Thai Union’s Global Innovation Center
Omni Pet FoodUK-based company that produces plant-based kibble dog food
Omni FoodsPlant-based meat company based in China, primarily producing pork under the brand “Omnipork”
On the Green SideSouth African based company that produces Plant based meat / Chicken
One Planet PizzaUK’s leading frozen vegan pizza.
goodmylkIndia-based makers of several plant-based milks, curds, mayo, and cheese.
Only EarthSingapore-based producer of plant-based milks.
Only Plant BasedUS-based producer of plant-based mayo, sour cream, and ranch dressing.
Ordinary SeafoodGermany-based producer of plant-based seafood.
Organic NectarsProduces Cashewtopia brand gelato, as well as plant-based chocolates and sweeteners.
Organic Plant ProteinCompany based in Denmark, that produces dry texturated meat analouges of pea and fava bean protein concentrate.
OterraWorld’s leading natural color supplier with expertise in plant-based formulations.
OtsukaJapan-based producer of ready-to-eat meals catered to various dietary needs/preferences with many plant-based options, as well as beverages and spreads.
Oumph!Plant-Based fast and frozen food primarily made with beans and soy
Outstanding FoodsProduces plant-based bacon chips
OzoFoodsUses both plant-based and fermentation processes to create meat-free grounds, meatballs, and sausages.
Pa’laisBelgium-based company producing plant-based cheeses
Pacific FoodsProduces plant-based soups, broths, dairy alternatives, seitan, breakfasts, and desserts. Not an entirely plant-based portfolio, but a leader in plant-based milk, using diverse proteins like hemp, oat, almond, and hazelnut.
DIAT RadissonProduces a variety of food products, including plant-based milk.
Pangea FoodItalian producer of artisanal plant-based cheeses.
PAOW!Produces a plant-based meat substitute. Formerly branded as Oumph!
Paradis VegetarienProduces plant-based meat products
Parmela CreameryProduces Cheeses; shredded and slices
Patch OrganicsUS-based company that produces organic plant-based milk alternative products, using nutritious, sustainable pumpkin seeds as a base ingredient.
PBCo.Australia-based company that produces a variety of low carb cooking and baking mixes, including a line of vegan egg powder
Peaceful Rebel Vegan CheeseUS-based producer of plant-based cheese.
Peas of HeavenSwedish company creating a variety of plant-based meat products.
PeggsU.S.-based company that produces plant-based egg powder for cooking and baking
Live PerennialProducer of direct to consumer plant based milk
Perfect World Ice CreamUK-based producer of healthy vegan ice cream.
PerfeggtGerman-based startup making animal-free liquid eggs using fava beans.
Perl’AmandeFrance-based company that produces various almond products, including almond milk.
Peruvian VeefPeru-based company that produces plant-based meat products, including nuggets, hamburgers, ham, and seitan
Feed PetalumaPetaluma produces minimally processed, organic plant-based pet food formulated by veterinarians.
PFC FoodsIndia-based producer of plant-based meat alternatives.
PFI FoodsChina-based company providing various business solutions, producing food ingredients, and producing plant-based meat products, primarily under the brand “Zhiai Life”
Phuture FoodsMalaysia-based company producing plant-based meat products, including minced pork
PhycosystemsGermany-based startup that develops a bioreactor for industrial microalgae production by using artificial illumination.
Pink AlbatrossPlant-based ice cream
PiperleafIndia-based company that produces vegan food alternatives, including a powder egg mix under the brand “Eggishh”
Pivotal FoodsProduces a variety of plant-based meats, raviolis, dips/dressings, and soups/sauces
PJ’s OrganicsUS-based producer of a range of meatless ready meals, burritos, non-GMO soy meatballs and more.
PlaeinGermany-based plant-based milk producer with a focus on allergy free milk produced in glass bottles
Plamil FoodsUK-based company that produces variety of products, including egg free mayonnaise, dairy free chocolate and carob, and quality alternatives to milk
Planet Based FoodsUS-based producer of hemp-based meat products.
Planet OatU.S.-based company that produces oat milk.
Plant It FoodsIreland-based company that produces plant-based meat products; partners with Trees on the Land to plant trees for each product sold.
Plant AheadCanadian company making plant based cheeses.
Plant BlissUS-based company producing a variety of plant-based products.
Plant BossUS-based company producing organic and shelf stable plant-based meatless crumbles and meal-starters.
Plant PerksU.S.-based company that produces plant-based cheese spreads and dips
Plant ProvisionsUS-based producer of elevated plant-based deli meat.
PlantranchfoodsU.S.-based company that produces plant-based meat products that are authentically flavored using generations-old Mexican recipes, including carne asada and al pastor
Plant RevoltEurope based company develops and produces plant based meat alternatives
Plant SquadMexican company producing healthy plant-based meat, pattys and chicken products with mexican taste. Dairy and egg plant-based products will be available soon.
Plant VedaProduces probiotic beverage and Indian cashew Lassi. Founders have another company, Karma Milk Private Limited, which produces the same products in India.
Plant & BeanUK-based company producing a wide variety of plant-based meat analogues
PlantagustoPlantagusto is a Finland-based clean-label plant-based meat company with texture and fat technology that allows for the authentic replication of animal meat textures without the use of extrusion.
Plantasia FoodsUS-based producer of pre-cooked plant-based burgers.
PlantBabyUS-based company producing plant-based milk
PlantcraftPlantcraft is a US-based, mission-driven food startup revolutionising the chilled deli meat category with a wide range of plant-based meats that are clean-label and free of all top 8 allergens (soya, wheat, gluten, etc.).
Planted FoodsU.S.-based plant-based protein company
PlantedPlant-based meats made from peas for food service in central Europe
PlanteneersGerman-based company that supports plant-based product development, innovation and R&D
Planeterra FoodsNew branch of JBS meant to further the availability of plant-based products. Parent company of Ozo plant-based meat brand
Planting HopeUS-based company that develops, launches, and scales uniquely innovative plant-based and planet-friendly food & beverage brands. These include Hope and Sesame® sesame milk, Mozaics™ real veggie chips, and Veggicopia® veggie snacks.
OshiIsreal-based foodtech company developing plant-based, whole-cut fish fillets from a combination of legume proteins and algae extracts using 3D printing.
PlantishStartup working on plant-based egg
PlantruptionIreland-based company producing plant-based seafood and burgers using locally-harvested seafood and micro algae.
Planty of MeatGermany-based company producing soy-free plant-based products
Pleather Vegan JerkyUS-based producer of plant-based jerky from seitan.
Please FoodsPlant-based cheese company in the US.
Plenish DrinksUK-company that primarily produces juises and juice shots that also offers nut milks.
PleuretteFrench company producing plant-based products from organic oyster mushroom heart
PLNTNetherlands-based producer of plant-based meat and fish.
POKKA SAPPOROJapan-based food brand conglomorate with a line of multiple soy products including soy milk.
Pop & BottleProduces oat and almond milk lattes sweetened by dates
Positive BrandsBrazil-based family of brands of products that are good for health and the planet, including plant-based milks
POW! FoodsWe believe in a nutritious, healthy and ethically responsible diet with our planet and with animals. We use science to make delicious plant-based substitutes for those foods you love so much.
Powered by PlantsPortugal-based brand of plant-based meat and dairy products produced for Continente supermarkets.
PranaFoodsProduces veggie burgers and cookies
Prefera FoodsU.S.-based company that produces plant-based meat and seafood products, primarily through the brands “Unfished” and “Green Course”
Primal Spirit FoodsProduces plant-based jerky (soy, tempeh, and shiitake mushroom-based).
Progo FoodsIndia-based producer of plant-based yogurts.
ProlaterreNetherlands-based producer of soy chicken, beef, and pork products.
PromeatIndian producer of plant-based meat alternatives.
PromelessFrench producer of plant-based meat and cheese
Propel FoodsMexico-based food tech company producing meat alternative mixes designed for the Mexican palate.
Protein MeatChina-based company that produces plant-based meat using staged temperature-controlled twin-screw extrusion technology
Proteina da TerraBrazil-based producer of plant-based meat products.
ProvamelGermany-based plant-based milk and yogurt producer.
ProvitamilUK-based producer of oat milk.
Punk Rawk LabsProduces cultured nut-based cheeses
Pure Abundance FoodProduces cashew-based artisanal vegan cheeses
PureHarvestAutralian company that produces a wide variety of products, including plant-based milks.
PurezzaUK-based vegan pizzeria that produces its own cheeses for sale.
PurificaBrazilian producer of plant-based beverages intended for vegan consumers made from almond milk, cashew nut milk, coconut milk, sugar-free spreads, allowing consumers to have non-dairy, sustainable food products.
PurveganGerman company that makes plant-based meat products under the brand name “Alberts.”
Qrunch FoodsProduces quinoa and millet-based veggie burgers and breakfast toastables
QualicocoBrazilian company producing many coconut-based products, including butter and milk.
QuelpChilean producers of seaweed-based alternative meat products.
QuinuarealSpanish company that produces various products, including plant-based milk and ice cream
QurczakPoland-based company producing plant-based chicken.
Rainfed FoodsCanada-based company that produces plant-based milk using underutilized crops like millet
Raised and RootedProduces plant-based chicken nuggets and burgers.
Raw PresseryIndian producer of a variety of beverages, including an almond milk.
RawckersProduces raw, plant-based artisanal creams and yogurts.
Real Good Food GroupAustralia-based company that produces cooking products and plant-based meat and dairy products, including cheese, egg powder, and meat patties under the brand “Plantasy Foods”
Real Lancashire Black PuddingThe V Pud was the worlds first commercially produced Vegetarian Black Pudding. In 2007 the recipe was adapted to be completely Vegan.
RebblProduces plant-based RTD beverages and milks
Rebel KitchenProducers of cashew and coconut based milk and milkshakes.
Rebellyous FoodsRebellyous produces plant-based chicken nuggets with a focus on foodservice such as hospitals, corporate cafeterias, and schools. They also have limited retail distribution in the Pacific Northwest of the United States, with an eye toward national retail expansion.
Redefine MeatFirst company to develop a new additive manufacturing technology specifically for food printing.
Regina VerdeItalian maker of plant-based cold cuts, cheeses, and stews.
Reine Vegan CuisineUS-based company producing plant-based cheeses.
Renegade FoodsU.S.-based company that produces plant-based charcuterie kits and salami, including toscana, chorizo, and soppressata
Revo FoodsAustria-based company producing 3D printed plant-based seafoods with realistic structure and high fibrosity
RevoluGreen!Spain-based company that produces plant-based meat and egg products
Revolution GelatoProduces cashew and coconut based gelato
Reynaldo’sProduces soy sausage, as well as a variety of animal-based sausages and cheeses
RilbiteMaker of a plant-based burger seeking biomimicry
RIP FoodsRIP™ is meat, made from plants, that cooks and tastes like chicken.
Ripple FoodsProduces pea-based milks
RisoscottiItaly-based rice company offering line of oat milks
RisofuProduces rice curd-based meat that resembles raw ground beef
Rival FoodsDutch food-tech company that develops plant-based whole-cut products.
Rollin GreensUS-based producer of shelf-stable, plant-based meat products that started out as a food truck.
Rollito VeganoSpanish producer of plant-based meats.
Rosie & RiffyNetherlands-based company producing plant-based cheese
Royal SpirulinaUS based company who specializes in alternative protein from an algae based sources called spirulina. Our vision is to provide alternative healthy protein to the market.
Helados RoyneSpanish makers of ice cream products, including some non-dairy options.
Ruby RocketsProduces dairy-free yogurts designed for kids. They come in gogurt-like packages, and are sweetened with fruits and vegetables only.
Rude HealthUK-based producer of snack foods and plant-based milks.
RUFGermany-based company that produces a variety of cooking and baking products, including vegan egg substitute
Ruegenwalder MuhleGermany-based sausage makers that offer numerous plant-based options.
SadiaBrazil-based subsidiary of BRF, providing plant based meat products and ready-to-eat meals.
SahmyookSouth Korea-based company that produces plant-based dairy and meat products
SainworldIndia-based company making plant-based milks
San-Iku FoodsJapan-based manufacturer of a variety of foodstuffs, including plant-based meats and milks.
VitaliteCanada-based company producing a wide variety of dairy products, including plant-based cheese under the brand “Vitalite”
Save da SeaCompany producing plant-based smoked salmon
SavorEatSavorEat develops digitally produced plant-based meat alternatives with the taste, texture, and experience of real meat using a smart robot.
Schouten FoodProducer of a variety of plant-based meats; provides private label production. Partnering with Grassa to develop a grass protein meat alternative.
Schreiber FoodsSchreiber Foods strives to do good through food every day. Based in North America, we’re a customer-brand leader in cream cheese, natural cheese, process cheese, shelf-stable beverages, plant based foods and yogurt.
SeabloomFrance-based company producing plant-based seafood
SEAFOOD RebootPlant-based marine substitutes with algae ingredients, for natural, healthy and sustainable food.
SeaMoreFoodProduces plant-based meat substitutes out of seaweed, among other seaweed products
SEASOGOODNetherlands-based copmany producing plant-based seafood
SeaspirePlant based seafood company based in India
Seed to SurfCanadian based company that produces plant-based seafood.


Seed to Surf is seafood like you’ve never imagined.
We’re recreating the seafood experience with plant-based offerings that are worthy of their own place on the menu. Our dishes aren’t a compromise. They’re a distinct take on seafood that highlights the provenance of plants, while nodding to familiar flavor profiles from the world’s best seafood restaurants.
Seva FoodsProduces plant-based freeze dried ice cream and coconut jerky
SgaiaUK-based producer of alternative meat products from a mix of wheat and either pea or soya protein.
Shaka HarryIndia-based producer of plant-based meat alternatives and meals for the Indian palate.
Shandi GlobalSingapore-based producer of plant-based chicken that has a complete amino acid profile and is more affordable than meat.
Sharaf FoodUK-based producer of gluten-free and vegan products.
Bute Island FoodsUK-based producer of plant-based cheeses.
ShefaBrazilian producer of shelf-stable milk and juice products, including one line of soy milks.
Shenzhen Whole Perfect FoodChina-based company producing a variety of plant-based meat products.
Shicken FoodsUK-based producer of plant-based alternatives to meat-based foods, including kebabs and curries.
Shocken FoodsUK-based company owned and operated by Michelin star chefs creating a variety of vegan charcuterie, brie cheese, spicy n’duja spread and foie gras pate (faux gras).
Siete FoodsProduces cashew queso and plant-based snacks like tortilla chips
SilkProduces plant-based milks (soy, almond, coconut, and cashew-based), as well as plant-based yogurt and creamer.
Silver Moon FoodUK-based producer of plant-based cheeses, which are cultured or cooked, using cashews and other tree nuts, plus a variety of plant based milks.
SimpliigoodIsrael-based company that produces fresh spirulina and offers various plant-based food products, such as burgers and schnitzels, under the brand “Spirulina Deli”
Simply EgglessShelf-stable liquid plant-based egg for frying, scrambling, and baking from a lupin bean base
SimplyVUS-based producer of plant-based spreads and cheese.
SIMULATEAnimal-free chicken nuggets and patties, sold under the brand name NUGGS.
SINEA FoodsCzech-based brand of plant-based meat, cheese, and snack products.
Sir Kensington’sProduces fabanaise (chickpea aquafaba based).
Sirabella’s Vegan CheeseProduces vegan cheescakes that taste like the real thing and have half the calories and zero cholesterol.
SliccIndian producer of a variety of oat milks.
Smart BalanceUS-based company that produces plant-based butter, as well as other oils and spreads.
SnacklinsProduces plant-based pork rinds
So DeliciousProduces So Delicious brand plant-based milks (almond, coconut, and cashew-based), ice cream and frozen desserts, yogurts, and creamers.
Life Health FoodsIndia-based brand providing several plant-based milk alternatives.
SoFine FoodsNetherlands-based producer of a range of plant-based fish, meat, and cheese products as well as tofu.
Soja ManiaBrazilian producer of soy-based meats.
SojadeFrance-based plant-based yogurt producer.
SojasunSojasun is a French company created that sells soy-based products, including milk, meat, and desserts.
Sol CuisineProduces veg-forward burgers & appetizers, falafel, and plant based meats (burgers, breakfast, chicken, meatballs, fish). Expanding to US market.
Solid Food‘Solid Food’ is a quinoa specialist provider with production in Ayacucho, Peru and distribution in Europe out of Belgium.
SomeatJapan-based company that produces soy-based meat products.
Something Better FoodsPlant-based meat developed by Chef Chew, sold under the brand name “Better Chew.”
Sophie’s KitchenPlant-based seafood produced in the US.
Sora AlimentosBrazilian producer of plant-based meats and cheeses.
MunddiBrazilian producer of plant-based ice cream.
Original SosmixUK-based brand of vegetarian sausage mix.
SotoGerman company that specializes in plant-based burgers, nuggets, falafel, and other finger foods
The Soul PattyUS-based producer of plant-based meat products.
Radiant FoodsA UK-Based plant based food business that produces soy-based protein alternatives.
SOWNUS-based producer of organic oat coffee creamer.
SOYFrance-based producer of plant-based foodstuffs, including soy-based meats and soy and rice milks.
Soy AustriaSoy Austria produces natural, sustainable, soy-based, GMO-free ingredients for the global food industry. The production is based on quality standards according to the highest European standards, and only European soybeans are used.
SOYVIDAPeru-based company produces soy milk
Soya KingUK-based company that produces canned soy cutlets.
SoyanaSwitzerland-based producer of soy-based alternatives to dairy, eggs, and meat.
SoyfreshSingapore-based brand of soy milk.
Soymilk CoRussia-based producer of soy-based products, including a soy meat crumble product.
Spero FoodsU.S.-based company that produces plant-based dairy products, including seed-based cream cheese and goat cheese, and egg products, including pepita-based liquid egg under the brand “pepitaegg”
Spread’Em KitchenProduces plant-based cheese and dips
SproudPlant-based milk powered by peas
SproutsCanadian producer of fully cooked plant-based comfort food components for food service operators
Squeaky BeanUK-based producer of cravable plant-based meats, including deli slices, nuggets, and fillets.
SriMuUS-based company creating plant-based cheese.
Starfield China-based company that produces and supplies plant-based meat products and plant proteins
Starlite CuisineMaker of plant-based enchiladas and taquitos from soy and pea protein
StarplantsFood tech, lifestyle company that developing, producing and selling plant-based drinks and snacks based on chickpea.
Stockeld DreameryPlant-based cheese, then yogurt and ice cream
Strictly Roots VeganUK-based producer of artisanal cheeses.
StriveIndia-based producer of vegan protein drinks, powders, and cookies.
Sudo FoodsIndia-based vegetarian meat producer.
Sunday SupperVegan Italian Frozen Food – Made For Meat Eaters. Plant based pasta dishes, including vegan cheese.
Sundial FoodsCalifornia-based company industrializing extrusion-free processing method for for plant-based whole cuts of meat and producing chickpea-based chicken wings with skin, meat, and bone
Sunfed MeatsPlant-based chicken chunks and bacon strips
Sunflower FamilyMaker of ground meat from textured sunflower protein
Sunshine BurgerProduces veggie burgers
Jymy Organic Ice CreamFinland-based producer of ice cream made from clean, organic ingredients with vegan options.
SuperbomBrazilian producer of plant-based dairy, meat, and mayo along with juice, jams, and snack foods.
SUPERHUMNUS-based producer of plant-based bacon, beef, pork, and chicken made from fungi and hemp.
SuXianZiMalaysia-based company that produces vegetarian and vegan seafood.
Good GroceriesMakers of varies products, some of which are vegeterian and/or plant-based
Bio Tofurei SvadeshaMake tofu, offering seitan and soy based alt proteins
Swedish GlaceUK-based plant-based ice cream company
Swees Plant Based FoodsThailand’s leading manufacturer of plant-based cheese.
Sweet ActionProduces dairy-based and dairy-free ice creams
Sweet Earth Natural FoodsProduces prepared meals/burritos/breakfast sandwiches, some of which are vegan/vegetarian. Benevolent bacon, veggie saUnited Statesge, and seitan also sold separately
Sweet NothingsMaker of plant-based ice cream/frozen yogurt
Sydsel AfricaKenyan-registered company dealing in plant-based proteins, fermentation-based proteins, fermented fats for plant-based proteins, and cultivated Tilapia fish and Nile Perch.
SykofagosGreece-based company that produces various fig products, including fig salami.
Synnove FindenFirst cheese producer in Norway to debut a line of vegan cheeses
Takay BlendsEcuador-based startup upcycling would-be wasted tropical fruit by turning it into vegan smoothies and ice cream
Take TwoUS-based company making plant-based milk.
Talmond FoodsGhana-based company that produces plant-based milk using tropical almonds
Tang HusetMaker of “Cavi-art” seaweed-based caviar
Tata Simply BetterIndia-based subsidiary of Tata Consumer Products, providing plant-based meat alternatives.
Tender Foods U.S.-based cultured meat company
TenseiBrazilian producer of soy-free plant-based meats.
Terra VeganeMaker of plant-based meat, eggs, and cheese
TeyokiBelarus-based company that produces tofu, tofu products, and soymilk.
Thai UnionThailand-based producer of seafood-based and other food products, including the “OMG Meat” line of plant-based meat products
Booja BoojaGerman comoany making vegan and organic ice-cream and chocolate truffles.
La Famiglia OrganicItalian maker of plant-based milks, creams, and desserts.
The Coconut CoUK-based company whose yogurts and puddings are dairy free, gluten-free, low in sugar, and vegan
Coconuts OrganicUK-based company that makes non-dairy, vegan ice cream under the Coconuts Organic brand name.
The Herbivorous ButcherUS-based vegan butcher that makes fully cooked, meat-free meats and cheeses in-house for sale in-person and online.
The Better StaplesSingapore-based makers of almond milk: 100% Raw. Vegan. Gluten-free. Pesticides-free.
NotCoThe Not Company is a foodtech that reinvents animal-based foods using only plants, focusing on milk substitutes
Alt FarmsUK- based company making protein-rich plant-based cheese
The Amaze FoodsSlovenian company making and selling plant-based meat and cheese products in Slovenia and Croatia
Love LikaUS-based company that produces LIKA brand protein and meat alternatives. Used as a plant-based eco-friendly filler in ground beef or as a standalone meat substitute.
CraftmeatMaker of a plant-based mince with other products in development
The Fast Good CompanyPlant based frozen meals
Field RoastProduces a variety of plant-based (grain protein) meat alternatives for retail and food service sale. Products include sausages, frankfurters, holiday roasts/meatloaf, and Chao slices (cheese).
The Good ChoicesProduces various plant-based meat products and plant-based ready meals, based in the Philippines.
The Good SpoonFrance-based company that produces plant-based condiments, including a range of microalgae-based mayos under the products “Supernaise” and “Naionaise”
The Green DairySwedish company that provides contract manufacturing for plant-based dairy products.
The Green MeatIndia-based startup developing plant-based meat alternatives that closely mimic the qualities of conventional meat.
The Green MountainSwitzerland-based company producing retail plant-based meat, including meatloaf, burgers, and ground meat
Greener Good FoodsIndia-based producer of plant-based milks, with goals to produce alternatives for eggs and frozen meats.
The Honest StandProduces plant-based cheese dips
The ISH Food CompanyPlant-based seafood company in the US.
The Live Green Co.The Live Green Co. uses a machine learning approach to develop alternative proteins that have the sensory characteristics of animal proteins.
Meatless FarmProduces plant-based meat products like fresh mince, burgers, and sausage
The Mighty KitchenThe Mighty Kitchen is a food technology company using real time customer insight to make delicious, fibrous, plant-based poultry products and ingredients.
The Mushroom Meat Co.US-based company that produces mushroom-based meat products from upcycled mushrooms and plants for health conscious consumers.
The New ButchersBrazilian producer of plant-based chicken and ground beef
The PackU.K.-based company producing nutritionally-complete plant-based dog food
The Plant Based SeafoodUS-based company that produces plant-based seafood: shrimp, scallops, lobster, and crab.
Let’s Plant MeatSouth Korea-based company researching applications of plant-based ingredients and producing a variety of plant-based products using local Korean “yakkong” beans
Raging Pig Co.Swedish company producing plant-based bacon
the REVPolish start up that designs and produces vegan dairy
The Seaweed CompanyNetherlands-based company cultivating and sourcing sustainable seaweed at scale to produce hybrid and plant-based meat and fish products.
The VERY Food CoVERY replace eggs and dairy in culinary applications.
Very Good ButchersWe want to make plant-based eating as approachable, nutritious and delicious as possible by creating food that’s Very Good for people, animals and the planet (while having a little fun along the way). The Very Good Butchers has individual meat cuts and meal kits made with whole plant ingredients.
The VGNGermany-based producer of liquid egg substitutes using broad bean protein
THEO’s Plant-BasedChicago-based vegetable-forward meats, starting with BEET Jerky.
THISPlant-based chicken and beef products, based in the UK.
THIS PKNUS-based producer of rich, buttery pecanmilk and pecanmilk creamer.
Thoughtful FoodSingapore based company that produces ambient plant-based meat dry mixes.
Three TreesProduces almond, pistachio, and sesame milks and cold brew coffee. Clean label.
Thrilling FoodsThrilling Foods makes plant-based bacon people actually want to eat.
Tiger House LimitedGhana-based company producing plant-based milk
TiNDLEUS-based company that produces plant-based meat products, including chicken.
TivallIsrael-based company that makes several kosher vegetarian meat alternatives, including burgers, nuggets, schnitzel, and hot dogs
TMRW FoodsCanada-based plant-based meat company
TnuvaIsrael-based company that produces a wide variety of dairy products, including a line of soy-based products under the brand “Alternative”
Pulled PortMaker of “Pulled Port” mushroom-based pulled pork replacement
Toats Oat CompanyUS-based company producing oat-based crackers, pizza crust, and milk.
TofunafyshProduces vegan fish sauce made with seaweed and veggie salad (mock tuna salad) made with jackfruit and seaweed.
TofurkeyProduces meat alternatives including Tofurky, tempeh bacon, hot dogs/sausages, and prepared meals such as pockets and pizzas
TofuttiProduces plant-based ice creams and frozen desserts, PB cheeses/sour cream, and other frozen foods.
Samurai FoodsBrazilian producer that focuses on tofu and tofu marinades and spreads, also produces a line of soy-based burger patties
Tomm’PousseMakers of artisanal vegan cheese alternatives based in France.
TossoliaFrance-based company that makes tofu and soy based alternatives to burgers and ground meat.
TourlamiTourlami is a plant-based ingredients company specializing in plant-based butter for professional use that compares in taste, texture, and functionality to dairy-based butter.
Treehouse NaturalsUS-based producer of canned pecan milk.
Treeline CheeseProduces nut-based artisanal cheeses.
TrivialyBrazilian producer of dairy products like ice cream and yogurt, offering vegan options
Twente FoodsNetherlands-based company that produces conventional dairy products, also offering a line of coconut-based yogurt
Ulrick & ShortUK-based ingredient supplier, offering a comprehensive range of clean label, functional native starches, fat replacers, functional flours, bakery glazes, phosphate replacers and proteins from a range of crops and cereals
Umami UnitedJapan-based company that produces a plant-based egg powder made with konjac powder and has umami flavour added to it thanks to an innovative enzyme process
Umaro FoodsU.S.-based company that produces plant-based meat products, starting with bacon, using ocean farmed seaweed.
UmiamiPlant based company producing private label whole cuts of meat.
UnconventionalItalian producer of palm and rapeseed oil-free burgers, sausages, and fillets.
UnicreamerUS-based producer of vegan coffee creamer packets.
Unisoy JerkyMaker of plant-based jerky in the US.
Univar SolutionsU.S.-based company that produces ingredients, including specialty flours and starches to serve as egg replacement
UNLIMEATUS-based maker of plant-based meat and cheese products, several of which are made from upcycled/imperfect produce.
UNMILKGermany-based plant based milk producer
Unnico FoodSlow fermentation plant-based yogurt, spreadable cheeses, and sweet cold desserts in an earth-friendly clay pot.
Unreal CoProducers dehydrated plant-based meats for home cooking as well as plant-based beef patties, chicken patties, and pizza
Unreel FoodsSingapore-based company that produces plant-based cheese and plant-based meaty slice/bar.
UpfieldNetherlands-based conglomerate of brands, most of which produce plant-based dips and spreads.
Upright OatsU.S.-based company that produces powdered oat milk with a high protein content
UprootProduces plant-based milk concentrates for food service settings
Uptons NaturalsProduces meat alternatives including seitan, burgers, jackfruit
Urban RemedyProduces clean label nut milks. Also sells meal plans and cleanses.
Urban TillerWe are a Singaporean startup working on protein extraction from all types of leaves. We are developing a proprietary platform that can process leaves of any type to extract leaf protein called Rubisco, the world’s most abundant high-quality protein.
V-dogU.S.-based manufacturer and wholesaler that produces plant-based dog food, treats, and chews, primarily under the brands “V-Planet” and “KindKibble”
v2FoodStartup producing biomimicked plant-based beef made from legumes
ValioFinnish brand of dairy and food products with a growing range of plant-based products made out of oat and simple ingredients.
ValpiformFrance-based producer of gluten-free and hypoallergenic food products designed to improve the quality of gluten-free and allergen-free foods, including a line of plant-based egg replacer
Van Leeuwn Ice CreamProduces artisan plant-based and dairy-based ice creams. Sells pints in retail in addition to their food trucks and storefronts in NY and LA.
VBitesMaker of a variety of plant-based meats, dairy, and seafood
VEATVending machines serving plant-based foods using cauliflower, peas, mushrooms, and other vegetables
VecanIndia-based producer of vegan products, including meat and cheese alternatives.
Vedgy KitchenMaker of a variety of vegetable-forward plant-based meats
VegabomBrazilian producer of plant-based burgers using non-transgenic soy and chickpeas.
VegaFitMaker of a variety of plant-based meats
Vegan CartelMaker of vegan bacon sold direct to consumer
Vegan FairiesGreek company that produces raw vegan desserts.
Vegan WholesalerVegan wholesaler supplying plant-based dairy, plant-based meat, and other vegan products based in the UK.
VeganactGreek company that produces frozen plant-based meats and other foods.
VeganovRussian company producing plant-based protein products, such as sausage, minced meat, and kopchushki.
VeganUsU.S.-company that produces plant-based chicken and beef products, including nuggets and burgers
VeganzGerman producer of vegan snack foods, frozen dinners, as well as plant-based cheeses and meats
VegavitaAustrian company that produces plant-based meat and dairy products.
VegDogGermany-based company producing plant-based dog food and products.
Vegeat FoodsMaker of plant-based ground beef and burger patties from peas and natural ingredients
VegecheeseSpanish maker of vegan cheeses.
VegefarmTaiwanese plant-based meat and seafood company.
Pronatura Vegetal GourmandFrance-based maker of plant-based foods, many of which are meant to substitute meat in dishes but aren’t necessarily imitate specific animal meats.
VegetaliaSpain-based company that produces a variety of plant-based products, including vegetable protein and vegetable burgers for meat
VegetariphPhilippines-based producer of of plant-based meats, ready-to-eat meals and snacks.
Myrtle GreensProduces beef, chicken, turkey, ham, fish, shrimp, and other meat alternative products. Produces various Asian-inspired meat-alternative-centric meals, such as vegan citrus spare rib cutlets and vegan ginger chicken. Sold in the frozen section of many natural foods stores.
VegetarisGerman company that primarily produces vegetarian meat products which contain egg and dairy, while offering a few vegan meat products.
VeggMaker of The Vegg, plant-based egg replacers including scramble, yolk, and baking ingredient
Veggi FilataProduce vegan alternatives to cheese in Germany.
Veggie ChampGerman makers of plant-based meat products.
Veggie GourmetGerman makers of plant-based nuggets, schnitzel, and fillets.
Veggie VictoryNigeria-based company creating plant-based meat.
VegglettoLicensing out technology for functional egg replacement via fermentation
VeggynessVegan cheeses and deli meat made from seitan
VeginiAustria-based company producing plant-based meats that are protein-rich and free from soy, gluten, lactose, and GMOs.
VegMeProduces plant-based meat, sauces, and ready-to-eat meals.
VEGORussian plant-based deli meat and cheese company.
VegshelfB2B Platform for retail-ready plant-based food products
VegustoMaker of plant-based cheese and meats, along with some vegan pet foods.
VegwayBrazilian producer of plant-based meat and seafood products.
VejjeUS-based producer of meat-free mixes.
Velike!Germany-based plant-based milk, yogurt, and ice cream producer
Velle CompanyProduces various plant-based dairy products in Russia.
VerdanyaA Malaysia-based company creating a variety of plant-based products.
VerdinoVerdino Green Foods is a forward-looking, uncompromising food manufacturing company that stands for sustainable food ways. Verdino Green Foods produces plant-based meat, dairy and fish products.
Each of our brands reflects our commitment to manufacture better foods, from better ingredients, with the environment in mind.
VertageU.S.-based company that produces plant-based cheese products.
VerysItalian maker of rice-based cheeses.
Vesta Food LabVenture-capital-backed food technology company based in China focusing on plant-based substitutes, mainly independently develop soy-based meat products.
Vevan FoodsUS-based producer of dairy-free cheese.
VezlayIndia-based producer of soy-based meat replacements and ready-to-eat meals.
Vegan Fried ChickenUK-based producer of plant-based chicken products.
VGANOEcuador-based company that produces plant-based meat and mozzarella cheese
VgardenIsrael-based food tech startup producing a variety of plant-based protein products, including cheeses, meats, and fish.
Vhismark EnterprisesKenya-based company that deals with conventional and plant-based dairy products, including developing crops and ingredients.
Vida VegBrazilian producer of plant-based cheese, yogurt, cream cheese, and other dairy products.
ViolifeProduces plant-based cheeses
VitaquellGerman company that makes plant-based meat, dairy, and mayo alternatives.
Vitariz LifeIsrael-based company that makes a rice and almond milk blend.
VitrasoyProduces soymilk and tofu. Products are available in supermarkets in over 40 countries.
Viva MarisMaker of algae-based burger patties, sausages, pastas, sauces, and more
VivesoySpanish maker of plant-based milks sourced from local nuts and soy beans.
Vixen KitchenProduces vegan paleo gelato. Cashew-based, sweetened with maple syrup
VlyProduces pea-based dairy products in Germany
Vor FoodsU.S.-based company that produces a variety of nut butter and a line of plant-based egg white substitute under the brand “Aquafaba”
VosskoGerman food retailer, offers some plant-based products, like burgers and nuggets.
Vrab ProteinPlant based seafood company developing crab and then other seafood products that target the South East Asian Market.
VromageUS-based company producing plant-based cheese.
Vtopian CheesesProduces artisanal cultured cashew cheeses
Wakao FoodsGoa-based sustainable food brand that makes products from Jackfruit
WayguCanadian food technology company producing premium plant-based meat products.
WayFare FoodsProduces plant-based dairy products like butter, sour cream, pudding, cheese, and dips.
Wege SiostryPoland-based company producing plant-based cheeses.
Weixing Import and ExportChina-based company producing plant-based meat products
Welldone GreenRussia-based company that produces plant-based meat.
WessanenMaker of dairy alternative and vegetarian meals with several brands, all of which use a variety of diverse ingredients
Franklin FarmsProduces soy milk in the US.
WhatIF FoodsUS-based producer of dairy-free milk made from Bambara groundnuts.
WheatyMaker of seitan-based meats
WhiteCubPlant-based ice cream company based in India.
Whiteboard FoodsBuilt on Spiderwort’s Aerocell™ and Hydrocell™ technologies, our scaffolds are produced with GRAS components and provide the flexibility to meet the engineering demands of your cell-cultured and plant-based food products
Wholly VeggieMaker of gluten-free, soy-free plant-based patties, pizzas, and more
WichySri Lankan producer of organic coconut kernel based products such as desiccated coconut, creamed coconut, coconut oil, coconut milk, coconut chips, coconut vinegar, coconut syrup, etc and coconut water in bulk and retail packaging.
Wicked FoodsMaker of “Wicked Meaty” plant-based heat-and-eat meals
WeeksFoodsUK-based company that produces a range of frozen vegan and vegetarian products for the food service, retail, and wholesale markets.
WiessenhofGerman conventional meat company offering some plant-based options.
WildWestLandDutch company making plant-based cheese.
Wildwood FoodsProduces meat alternatives including veggie burgers and meatless crumbles, tofu, vegan mayo, soymilk, and soy creamer. Parent company is Korea-based but there are corporate, sales and food science headquarters in Fullerton, California with manufacturing enterprises in California and New York.
WillicroftFounded by a former dairy farmer, Willicroft creates plant-based cheese products including fondue, cream cheeses, cheese sauces, a cheese fondue, grated cheese Italian style and Greek White.
WilmersburgerGermany-based company producing plant-based cheeses.
Winahshon EnterprisesKenyan Start-up that deals in organic feeds for fish, pigs, poultry and pets and has expanded its focus to new alternative pet foods and related products from plant-based ingredients. They are piloting plant-based meat, chicken, fish, and milk and related products.
WindauPopular German meat company offering a line of vegan pulled pork sausage
Wink Frozen DessertsProduces low-calorie plant-based ice creams
Wonderlab Doozy PotsMaker of plant-based gelato from oat and hemp
WondermeatProduce plant-based meats such as burgers, sausages, ground meat and kebabs.
WORTHINGTONProduces a line of plant-based meat alternatives including roasts and deli slices.
WTH FoodsWTH has taken the challenge of turning vegetables into something fit for meaty cravings. Our products are plant-based, sustainably made with local ingredients, and inspired by local flavors. We create favorite Filipino food that’s healthy and kind to all – our farmers, the animals, the planet, and especially you.
YamChopsPlant-based butcher offering their own line of plant-based meats as well as other manufacturers’ products. They have a storefront in Toronto.
FoodBevgHungarian producer of sprouted soybean, a high-quality complete protein, as a raw material for the food industry.
Yeo’sSingapore-based company that makes sauces and beverages, including a line of soy milk.
YesYouCanAustralia-based company that produces a variety of low carb baking and cooking products, including a line of vegan egg replacer
Yo! EggUS-based company producing plant-based eggs with yolk and egg white
YoconutU.S.-based company that produces coconut-based yogurt
Yofi BioFrance-based company creating organic plant-based milk alternatives with peas
YoFiitProduces chickpea-based milks
YofixProduces plant-based yogurts
ZroumovementChina-based company producing plant-based minced and ground meat products
YourganicIndonesian company with a focus on RTD products, plus almond milk.
YumeatSingapore-based producer of ready-to-eat meat alternatives and meals.
YUMGOFrance-based company creating plant-based egg alternatives.
Yves Veggie CuisineCanadian company that makes various plant-based meat products, including gluten-free and kosher options.
Z-ROUChina-based producer of plant-based meat, with plans to expand to other areas in plant-based cuisine.
ZahiniMexican producer of plant-based, soy-free yogurt made from mexican-grown coconuts.
Loja ZankyBrazilian maker of plant-based burgers and coxinha (chicken croquettes)
Vegetarian ExpressNetherlands-based brand of plant-based seafood products, including sashimi, shrimp, and calamari analogs, among others.
ZENBURGERProduces nut-based burgers, balls and tacos. The company produces Gluten-Free, Soy-Free, Nut-plant based and organic burgers and tacos which are healthy alternatives to current fast foods.
Zen PuddingUS-based producer of dairy-free pudding.
ZensoyProduces soy milk, soy pudding, and almond pudding.
Zero EggProduces liquid plant-based eggs for classic cooking and baking
Zero MeatJapan-based company producing soy meat products
ZhenmeatChina-based company producing domestic plant-based meat products
ZoglosProduces frozen soy-based meats, including hot dogs, meat balls, burgers, chicken nuggets, kebabs, and schnitzel. Also produces some vegetable-based products like broccoli nuggets, corn nuggets, and cauliflower cutlets. Available in North America, Europe, Australia and Israel.
Zona CerealistaBrazil-based “virtual cereal warehouse” that sells ingredients, organic snacks, and cooking materials, including an egg substitute flour as well as plant-based milk and burgers.
AjinomotoTotal Solutions Provider, Include salt, sugar reduction.
ANPOLYA company that uses nanocellulose to improve the texture of alternative meat and alternative foods
AzarGen BiotechnologiesBiotech company using advanced genetic engineering and synthetic biology techniques in plants to produce high-value proteins.
Blue Ridge BantamU.S.-based company that produces hybrid alternative poultry products, especially turkey, by integrating cultivated fat cells that mimic the taste and texture of animal fat cells into plant proteins
Dr. FoodsJapan-based food tech company producing plant-based foie gras and developing plant-based and cultivated meat.
FooduramaFoodurama is an Indonesia-based alternative protein company focusing on plant-based and cell-cultured meat.
Forma FoodsMexican company taking meat production out of its evolutionary stagnation. Aiming to create a full cell-based meat.
Meat.The.EndIsrael-based company developing production techniques and ingredients to boost the texture of meat alternatives
Mooji MeatsU.S.-based company developing scalable process that authentically textures alternative meats and ground meats.
Ouro FoodsOuro Foods is developing 4D tissue engineering + bioprinting technologies to create plant- and cell-based meat that “corrects” flavor and aroma for a variety of taste-impaired palate profiles. This protein will be the centerpiece of meal kits targeting taste impaired patients.
Cubiq FoodsSpain-based startup working on cultivated fat, also developing cell-based omega-3
EVO FoodsStartup working on lentil-based egg replicas
Finless FoodsU.S.-based company working on plant-based fish and cultivated blue fin tuna
Fork and GoodU.S.-based startup working on cultivated meat
LightlifeProduces prepared meals/burritos/breakfast sandwiches, some of which are vegan/vegetarian. Benevolent bacon, veggie sausage, and seitan also sold separately
MeatableDenmark-based company producing cultivated meat products and pushing to bring cultivated meat to market by combining it with plant-based proteins.
Mission BarnsU.S.-based startup working on cultivated meat, currently offering Kosher Bacon
SuperMeatIsrael-based company developing cultivated chicken
ViveraOver 40 varieties of plant-based meat, including plant-based steak which is sold at Tesco.
Matrix MeatsStartup making 3D nanofiber tubes for cultivated meat production.
Aglow BiosciencesSingapore-based company creating alternative dairy products using microalgea fermentation technology.
betterland foodsUS-based company that develops and manufactures Plant-Based, Animal-Free, better-for-you beverages and snack bars with animal-free protein that is made through precision fermentation. Our mission is to build a better food future for the people & the planet.
All G FoodsAustralia-based company that produces plant-based meat products, under the brand “BUDS,” and dairy products, under the brand “MilkCELL,” using precision fermentation.
Le Groupe BelFrance-based conglomerate of cheese brands, including launching an animal-free line, called “Nurishh Incredible Dairy,” in 2023.
Plant OriginThailand-based company. Creating rice bran protein by sidestream valorising from rice production
Strive MilkUS based company that develops Strive Brand Plant-Based beverages enriched with Animal-Free Whey Protein, Alt Milk produced with Animal-Free Whey Protein and Sports Protein Shakes and Protein Waters produced with Animal-Free Whey Protein.
Tomorrow FarmsU.S.-based company that builds and grows brands of various alternative protein products, including a company producing milk using microbial fermentation called Bored Cow
BiocatalystGlobal speciality enzyme development and manufacturing company.
Dare Vegan CheeseUS-based producer of traditionally crafted plant-based cheese.
Fermento VeganoSpain-based company producing plant-based cheese
Meeat Food TechMeeat Food Tech Oy is Finnish a new food industry company that was established in 2020 based on the “Muu” plant-based products launched by Pouttu. Most of our products are made of pea protein and fermented fava beans. We also use soy and wheat as protein sources. Besides these ingredients, our products contain water, canola oil and spices, for example.
MillowSweden-based company that produces Mycelium-based food
MoonLabTaiwan-based producer of artisan plant-based cheese and other dairy and baked products.
New RootsProduces artisan vegan cheese and yogurt in Switzerland.
NurasaSingapore-based government-backed organization to support foodtech companies through providing investments, lab facilities (Food Tech Innovation Centre), and market facilities.
NutcrafterUK-based producer of plant-based artisan cheese and butter.
PoseidonaWe develop sustainable proteins from algal waste and invasive biomass to create the tastiest, mouth watering food products.
QuornProduces f. venenatum mycoprotein-based meat substitutes. Most products use egg whites for binding, though a vegan line was recently released. Products include chicken cutlets/patties/tenders/nuggets, turkey, burgers, and breakfast products. Parent company is based in the Philippines.
Real Vision FoodsContract manufacturer of Meat, Egg, seafood and Dairy analogues focused on early to mid- level companies needing to scale and commercialize their products
SojaBioFrance-based producer of soy products, including tofu, cheese, and cheesy spreads.
SvetulkaBulgarian company that produces fermented plant-based dairy products.
TypcalPlant-based manufacturer and seller of pea-based chicken/beef, mayo, and sauces.
Utopia FoodsSouth Africa-based producing plant-based cheeses and yogurts.
WellmiChina-based company that produces plant-based yogurt optimized for gut health
WildbrineUS-based producer of wild-cultured, plant-based, non-dairy butters, cheeses, & dips.
Climate RefarmA public benefit corporation subsidizing plant-based alternatives by paying institutions like schools and hospitals through the sale of carbon credits generated through dietary shifts.
CocojuneUS-based producer of coconut-based probiotic yogurt.
CoolhausUS-based producer of a wide range of conventional, plant-based, and animal-free ice creams.
DelishuBulgarian company that produces cultured cashew products (cheese analog).
EpocaUS-based producer of probiotic plant-based dairy beverage made from almond milk.
GrashkaSlovenian-based company that produces plant-based deli meats.
Grounded FoodsMaker of plant-based cheese from cauliflower and hemp
NoMooBrazilian producer of cashew cheese, butter, and mayo.
Pure Green Extract1. A US based R&D innovation and commercialization plant based protein hub located in Oregon. Providing a wide range of services including R&D, Design, Scale-up, Operation, OPEX/CAPEX analysis, Biz Development, Technical Marketing and
2. Offering startup companies a platform with full access to a one-of-a-kind R&D and Commercialization facility including:
a. State-of-the-art laboratory, consists of (1) a wide range of protein concentration and isolation equipment; (2) In house protein functionality analysis; (3) Sensory and Color analysis;
b. An R&D Pilot Plant including: (1) Small scale spray drying; (2) various equipment for solvent and water fractionations and the ability to rent and source special equipment as required.
c. A food grade (Organic and Kosher), Small Commercial Scale wet fractionation production line with flexibility to incorporate various fractionation technologies and equipment – all are fully scalable and product can be sold as a food ingredient for Proof of Market acceptance and POC purposes.
3. A team of specialists to support the overall R&D and small commercialization work by planning, analyzing, exploring different technologies, and eventually /translating selected processes into a reliable techno-economic model for establishment of a large scale operation.
4. Potential partnership, co-investment and Business Development services to connect between reliable projects and ventures that are actively looking to invest in project that can show positive margins and de-risking activates that all can be done under one roof with Pure Green Extraction. .
Quazy FoodsGerman startup developing microalgae-based seafood products using fermentation, starting with canned tuna.
Le SojamiFrace-based company specializing in soybean lactofermentation to produce a range of tasty dairy-free, gluten-free, vegan spreads from organic GMO-free soy.
SPX FlowUS-based company that manufactures equipment and end-to-end systems for nutritional and plant-based products
Tyne CheeseUK-based producer of plant-based cheese using organic cashew nuts.
VackaSpanish company designs and produces fermented plant-based food products (conventional cheese analogs)
Veggie KarmaSpain-based company producing plant-based cheese.
BiomegBIOMEG is a Singapore based boutique life sciences company enabling plant, cell and insect based protein solutions to markets of Asia Pacific. We research & develop complete food and beverage concepts for alternate protein based products for launch as B2B, B2C or QSR/Food Service Channels across all markets of Asia- Pacific.
KerryKerry is the world’s leading taste and nutrition partner for the food, beverage and pharmaceutical markets. We innovate with our customers to create great tasting products, with improved nutrition and functionality, while ensuring better impact for the planet. Our leading consumer insights, global RD&A team of 1,100+ food scientists and extensive global footprint enable us to solve our customers complex challenges with differentiated solutions. At Kerry, we are driven to be our customers’ most valued partner, creating a world of sustainable nutrition, and will reach over 2 billion consumers with sustainable nutrition solutions by 2030. For more information, visit www.kerry.com
Matterhorn StudioSupporting alternative protein companies in their first step towards using machine learning for data-driven media and process optimisation
PerkinElmerTesting and analysis equipment for plant-based foods researchers, R&D, formulators, and processors
Wild EarthThe leading US producer of alternative proteins for our pets, $12MM ARR today for our plant based products with cell based ingredients coming soon.

(Scroll down in database to see more companies.)

This list is drawn from a database maintained by the Good Food Institute (GFI), a nonprofit think tank and network working to promote alternatives to animal protein by funding and sharing research in science, technology, and public policy, along with business innovation.

• Read GFI’s 2022 report on the state of the plant-based meat, egg, dairy and fish industry for an excellent introduction to what is happening in the field.

Cultivated Meat

Other start-ups are trying for something even more ambitious: they’re working to make real animal cells reproduce outside of an animal, in large, metal tanks called bioreactors, and then to assemble them (for instance, by 3D printing them onto “scaffolding” made of fungi) into steaks, or cuts of chicken or fish, or other kinds of meat. The great advantage of this “cultivated meat” is that it’s really meat, from the very same cells that animals are made of, and so it should taste the same. And whereas animals take months or years to grow, and crops take months, animal cells can double in twenty four hours. The disadvantage, for now, is that, while cultivated meat has already been produced successfully in small pilot facilities and served in a few restaurants, it is still very expensive; and as GFI explains in detail, a great deal of further scientific and technological work will be needed to produce it at a scale large enough to make a difference (and to bring costs down). No one has done this yet. But according to GFI, as of 2022, at least 156 publicly-announced companies are working on it. Here are companies drawn from their database:

WebsiteDescriptionMedia
Umami MeatsSingapore-based company developing cultivated seafood, starting with IUCN Red Listed species that are difficult to farm and that are being driven extinct by human consumption.Food Dive
OmeatU.S.-based cultivated meat company that collects plasma from cows for cultivated meat production.Food Dive
TurtleTreeSingapore-based company developing cultivated dairy products.Forbes,Food Dive
Upside FoodsU.S.-based company developing novel methods to make crustacean products using cell culture, acquired by Upside Foods in 2022Food Dive
JUST
U.S.-based company with a plant-based egg brand called JUST Egg and a cultivated meat subsidiary called GOOD Meat, with plant-based products including liquid egg, folded egg, and sous vide egg bites as well as cultivated meat (chicken).Food Dive
SCIFI FoodsU.S.-based start-up working on cultivated and cultured meat products (formerly Artemys Foods)My Climate Journey
Wild Type FoodsU.S.-based startup working on cultivated salmonMy Climate Journey
OrbillionU.S.-based company producing various cultivated meats, including wagyu beef, elk, sheep and American bison.My Climate Journey podcast
Hoxton FarmsCell-cultured meat fatTechCrunch
108labsUS-based company creating cultivated human milk
3D-BiotissuesU.K.-based research entity aimed at improving tissue engineering using in-house engineering platform “Tissue Templating,” producing human skin, human cornea, and lab-grown meat.
Aleph FarmsIsrael-based company producing cultivated beef steak
AlifeFoodsGermany-based company producing cultured schnitzel
Alt AtlasAI-powered food ingredients and solutions. With its proprietary high-throughput cell and media screening, the company is developing stem cell lines (non-GMO) and how to use them (AI-based custom recommendations to scale-up production based on users’ unique production systems
Ambi Real FoodBrazil-based company producing cultured meat products, focusing on beef.
Animal Alternative TechnologiesU.K.-based company creating a complete, scalable cultured meat manufacturing system: the Renaissance Farm®, which includes raw materials, hardware (eg. bioreactors), AI software, bioelectronics, and bioprocesses
ANJY MeatCroatia-based company creating meat products that are rare in industrial animal agriculture, piloting with a lion burger.
Another FishCanada-based company that produces cell-cultured fish-fillet products, piloting with a whitefish fillet
AntsinnovateSingapore-based deep tech company focusing on developing cultivated whole meat cuts, including pork
Appleton MeatsCanada-based company working on scaling up the production of clean ground beef, chicken, and mouse-meat (for cat treats)
ArtMeatRussia-based start-up working on cultivated horse and sturgeon cells
Atlantic Fish CoUS-based company creating cultivated seafood.
Avant MeatsHong Kong-based company using proprietary biotechnology platform to produce cultivated fish products, including food, skincare, and other functional applications
B.I.F.EArgentina-based bioengineering startup working to innovate cellular agriculture processes.
BaobabhcBaobab Healthcare is developing clean fish using cell-based approaches to move towards sustainability.
Future MeatIsrael-based startup working on cultivated meat products, such as chicken kebab, using muscle and fat production and media recycling (formerly known as Future Meat Technologies)
Bene Meat TechnologiesCzech Republic-based company producing cultivated meat products, beginning with beef and planning to later add pork, chicken and other meats
BiftekTurkey-based start-up working on cultivated meat and serum free cell culture media
BioBQU.S.-based start-up producing cultivated beef brisket and jerky
BecauseAnimalsU.S.-based company making cultured meat for dog and cat food and supplements
BiomilqU.S.-based startup producing cultivated human breast milk for infants
BiomimesysFrance-based developer of cell culture technology which associates the behavior of a solid scaffold and of a hydrogel to provide a cell culture microenvironment reproducing all aspects of human tissues, including matrix architecture, cellular organization, cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions.
Biomimetic SolutionsU.K.-based startup working on 3D scaffolds for cultivated meat layering
Biotech FoodsSpain-based startup producing cultivated meat products, acquired by Brazil-based JBS in 2021
BlueFin FoodsU.S.-based company producing cultivated seafood to be a viable substitute for the traditional seafood supply chain
BlueNaluU.S.-based startup producing cultivated seafood products
BLUUGermany-based company producing cultivated seafood products
UnReal MilkIndia-based producer of cow-free cow milk under the brand name “UnReal Milk.”
Bruno CellItaly-based startup focused on R&D for cultivated meat products
Cell Ag TechCanada-based startup working to produce sustainable seafood from stem cells instead of living animals
CELL4FOODPortugal-based, Cell4Food aims to create a network of businesses that will lead the market in the next decade driven by technical knowledge on Cell-Based protein production.
TheCellMeatSouth Korea-based company producing cultivated meat products
CellquaSouth Korea-based startup producing cultivated seafood products
CellTec SystemsFull-range supplier for industrial cell technology and cultivated meat based in the north of DE.
CellXChina-based company that focuses on scaling up cultivated meat production in China and serving global markets.
Clear MeatIndia-based startup working on cultivated meat, aiming to work in a B2B format to license out their technologies.
Clever CarnivoreUS-based cultivated meat company focusing on large scale, cost-effective production of high quality pork, beef, and chicken
CytonestStartup focused on delivering customized and scalable 3D fiber scaffolds for adherent cell expansion
DenovomatrixdenovoMATRIX is Germany-based company that designs and produces biomaterials to enable cell manufacturing in higher quality, quantity and safety.
Diverse FarmJapan-based company that makes 100% cellular structured meat, including chicken, pig, cow & fish.
Dragonfly FoodsProduces organic tofu, tofu burgers and soy sausages.
OshiIsrael-based joint venture of Biomeat Foodtech and Volcani Center for the development of cultivated Tilapia
Edge FoodsUS-based company developing a platform technology capable of mass-producing growth factors, helping cultivated meat manufacturers achieve scale.
EgglessProduces eggless mayos, soy and pea varieties are available.
EnantisCzech Republic-based company producing recombinant growth factors (e.g. FGF2) with an improved half-life for cultivated meat, fat or milk applications.
Ever After FoodsIsrael-based company that focuses on developing, manufacturing, and commercializing cultivated meat. Has created a proprietary bioreactor to help scale cultivated meat.
CaromeatsCanada-based company creating cultivated meat.
ExtracellularA CDMO providing scale-up and development services for cultivated meat companies.
Fisheroo Singapore-based company using cellular agriculture technology to create surimi, a minced fish paste commonly found in East Asian cuisine
FishwayBelgian company producing cultivated seafood
FoldChangesNetherlands-based computational biology and machine learning platform focused on cellular agriculture.
Forsea FoodsIsrael-based cultivated seafood company co-founded with the Kitchen Hub Incubator licensing a platform technology for the cultivation of seafood, beginning with eel
FUDZSParis-based cultivated meat producer
GaiaFoodsSingapore-based company producing cultivated meat products, emphasizing quality cells grown without harmful chemicals, microbial contamination, no hormones, and no antibiotics.
genuine tasteCanada-based company creating cultivated fat for plant-based protein products.
Good Dog FoodUK-based start-up created cultivated pet food, for healthy pets and a healthy planet
GourmeyFrance-based company producing restaurant-grade meats directly from animal cells, starting with cultivated foie gras
HeurosAustralia-based company working on producing media and bioreactors to supply cultivated meat companies and interested research institutions
ImpacfatSingapore-based startup developing fish cell-based fat that is tasty, nutritional, and sustainable
Innocent MeatGermany-based company providing meat processors with an automated end-to-end clean meat production system, allowing producers of conventional meat to update supply chain and produce cultivated meat
IntegricultureJapan-based startup working on cultivated meat and leading an open-source movement
Ivy FarmU.K.-based company that produces cultivated pork products.
JimiChina-based early-stage company that produces cultivated meat products
JoesFutureFoodA high-tech company in Nanjing China that engages in cultured meat research and industrialization, including developing serum-free culture media
K-CellSouth Korea-based company producing cell culture media
KlevermeatIndia-based company that is looking to produce scaffolds and cell lines for cultivated seafood
Lab Farm FoodU.S.-based company producing various cultivated meats, including pork and chicken nuggets
Live MatrixBiotech company that produces hydrogel scaffolds for tissue engineering and cultivated meat bioprinting
Luna Therapeutics LtdContract development and manufacturing company specialising in innovative 3D materials and scaffolds with capabilities in R&D through to GLP and GMP development and manufacturing formulations
LuyefChile-based cell-based meat company that has developed myoglobin protein to provide the flavor and aroma of real meat for plant-based meat alternatives and is also working on hybrid plant-based and cultivated meat products using an algae scaffold
Magic CaviarNetherlands-based company producing cultivated Oocytes in vitro to create caviar
Magic ValleyAustralia-based company producing cultivated lamb meat
marinasCultivated Seafood company operates in Singapore and the US
MeandmaAustralia-based company that produces cultivated infant milk using human proteins
MealTechIndian company disrupting the cultivated meat segment
MealTechIndia-based company that produces cell-lines work and serum-free media formulations the cultivated meat industry
MeattomorrowDenmark-based startup that specializes in stem cell line development from livestock animals
MeataforaIsrael-based company isolating and culturing farm animal stem cells inside plant-derived collagen microcarriers to produce cultivated meat
MeatiplySingapore-based local company developing and producing cultivated meat cuts through cutting-edge research, with the vision of generating healthier and more environmentally-friendly products that mimic the taste and texture of conventional meat.
MEATLOCanada-based company using cell culture and a unique manufacturing bioprocess to develop cultivated beef.
MEATLOCanadian based cultivated meat company. Our mission is to produce meat that is tasty, nutritious, and respectful of animals and our planet.


We have a better, faster and cheaper business model to bring ground beef to market in 2026.
Mermade FoodIsraeli cell-based seafood company specializing in shellfish
MeweryCzech Republic-based startup cultivating pork lab-grown meat on microalgae proprietary base
Sigma-AldrichUS-based life science industry supplier with offerings for cultivated protein, such as animal-free serum, cell lines, and equipment.
Alpha MeatsSwitzerland-based company producing cultivated meat products
Mosa MeatNetherlands-based startup working on cultivated beef in collaboration with Mark Post at Maastricht University
MyomeatsCultured beef company based in San Diego, CA.
Myo PlateCanada-based company creating natural cultivated pork.
MyodenovoNorth Carolina-based company creating scaffolds for cultivated meat production.
MyoWorksIndia-based company producing edible scaffolding for the cultivated meat industry.
MzansimeatSouth Africa-based startup working on cultivated beef and chicken
NISSIN FOODS GROUPJapan-based company that producing and selling convenience food and instant noodles, carrying out research on cultured steak meat
NoubioNouBio unlocks cultivated meat and dairy industries with market-ready products (NouSerum & NouCarrier) that lower production costs by 95% whilst maintaining optimal cell growth, density, performance, and scalability.
Novel FarmsU.S.-based company that produces whole cuts of cultured Iberian pork
OceantastesA US-based company that produces Flavorful, Nutritious & Safe Cultivated Seafood
Ohayo ValleyUS-based company blending plant-based and cultivated meat to produce cultivated wagyu ribeye
Opalia FoodsA Canada-based company producing milk from mammary cells
Opo BioB2B cell line supplier for cultivating meat at scale from New Zealand livestock.
Optimized FoodsA US-based company using mycelium to create caviar without fish.
Peace of MeatGermany-based company producing and supplying cultured fat as a tasty and texturing ingredient
Pearlita FoodsU.S.-based company that produces cell-cultured shellfish products, including oysters and abalone
Pristine Pet FoodU.S.-based cultivated pet food company
Profuse TechIsrael-based company developing technology for optimization of the cell differentiation, fusion and maturation production-stage of cultivated meat
The Lauridsen GroupUS-based manufacturer of bovine serum albumin, media from edible plasma, and edible grade serums (sourced from New Zealand).
Quest MeatUK-based company focused on production and scale up of beef, as well as the development of adjunctive technologies to enhance process efficiency.
Re:MeatScandinavian company aiming for large-scale production of cultivated meat
Reel FoodsReel’s species-agnostic platform creates thick, whole-cut meat products by driving taste and texture from muscle cells. Starting with seafood as their first market, they are developing cultivated fish fillets with the mouthfeel of wild caught products.
Sea-StematicSouth Africa-based company focused on manufacturing fish through cell cultivation and with progressive food production R&D processes
FRESH STARTIsrael-based company producing proprietary immortalized fish cell lines for the production of cultivated fish.
SeaFutureCanada-based company producing cultivated seafood
SeawithSouth Korea-based company producing cultivated meat through algal engineering technology with algae-based scaffold and media.
Senara“The first cell-based milk company in Europe”
Shiok MeatsSingapore-based company producing cultivated seafood, including crustaceans like shrimps, crabs, and lobsters
Simple PlanetThe South Korea-based company that produces cell-based meat and fat products
Smart MCsAustralian based company that provides the means for up-scaling the cell culture of cultivated meat companies.
SoundeatsU.S.-based company pursuing a science-forward approach to the development of textured, cultivated fish meat.
SpacefSouth Korea-based company producing cultivated meat
SteakholdersIsrael-based company producing 3D printed cultivated meat; collaborating with Umami Meats. (Formerly known as MeaTech 3D)
SustineripiscisBrazil-based cultivated seafood startup.
TissenBioFarmsSouth Korea-based company producing cultivated meat.
TruspinUS-based developer of nanofiber production technology. TruSpin uses AC electrospinning to mass-produce a variety of nanofiber compositions in forms/mediums suitable for cultivated meat scaffolding.
Higher SteaksU.K.-based startup working on cultivated meat
Memphis MeatsU.S.-based cultivated meat startup producing beef, duck, and chicken product prototypes
Upstream FoodsNetherlands-based company that’s working on cultivated seafood.
Vital MeatFrench-based cultured chicken company
Vow FoodAustralia-based cultivated meat startup working growing unconventional and exotic animal meats (i.e. kangaroo, zebra, tortoise)
Wanda FishIsrael-based cellular agriculture company aiming at producing cell-based fish meat
Mogale MeatSouth Africa-based company developing cell-lines for cultured meat, including antelope
WILKIsrael-based company producing cultivated milk, breast milk, and human milk oligosaccharide (HMO)
Bright BiotechUK-based company that specialises in molecular farming and the production of recombinant proteins for the cultivated meat sector.
AjinomotoTotal Solutions Provider, Include salt, sugar reduction.
ANPOLYA company that uses nanocellulose to improve the texture of alternative meat and alternative foods
AzarGen BiotechnologiesBiotech company using advanced genetic engineering and synthetic biology techniques in plants to produce high-value proteins.
Blue Ridge BantamU.S.-based company that produces hybrid alternative poultry products, especially turkey, by integrating cultivated fat cells that mimic the taste and texture of animal fat cells into plant proteins
Dr. FoodsJapan-based food tech company producing plant-based foie gras and developing plant-based and cultivated meat.
FooduramaFoodurama is an Indonesia-based alternative protein company focusing on plant-based and cell-cultured meat.
Forma FoodsMexican company taking meat production out of its evolutionary stagnation. Aiming to create a full cell-based meat.
Meat.The.EndIsrael-based company developing production techniques and ingredients to boost the texture of meat alternatives
Mooji MeatsU.S.-based company developing scalable process that authentically textures alternative meats and ground meats.
Ouro FoodsOuro Foods is developing 4D tissue engineering + bioprinting technologies to create plant- and cell-based meat that “corrects” flavor and aroma for a variety of taste-impaired palate profiles. This protein will be the centerpiece of meal kits targeting taste impaired patients.
Cubiq FoodsSpain-based startup working on cultivated fat, also developing cell-based omega-3
EVO FoodsStartup working on lentil-based egg replicas
Finless FoodsU.S.-based company working on plant-based fish and cultivated blue fin tuna
Fork and GoodU.S.-based startup working on cultivated meat
LightlifeProduces prepared meals/burritos/breakfast sandwiches, some of which are vegan/vegetarian. Benevolent bacon, veggie sausage, and seitan also sold separately
MeatableDenmark-based company producing cultivated meat products and pushing to bring cultivated meat to market by combining it with plant-based proteins.
Mission BarnsU.S.-based startup working on cultivated meat, currently offering Kosher Bacon
SuperMeatIsrael-based company developing cultivated chicken
ViveraOver 40 varieties of plant-based meat, including plant-based steak which is sold at Tesco.
Matrix MeatsStartup making 3D nanofiber tubes for cultivated meat production.
BiomegBIOMEG is a Singapore based boutique life sciences company enabling plant, cell and insect based protein solutions to markets of Asia Pacific. We research & develop complete food and beverage concepts for alternate protein based products for launch as B2B, B2C or QSR/Food Service Channels across all markets of Asia- Pacific.
KerryKerry is the world’s leading taste and nutrition partner for the food, beverage and pharmaceutical markets. We innovate with our customers to create great tasting products, with improved nutrition and functionality, while ensuring better impact for the planet. Our leading consumer insights, global RD&A team of 1,100+ food scientists and extensive global footprint enable us to solve our customers complex challenges with differentiated solutions. At Kerry, we are driven to be our customers’ most valued partner, creating a world of sustainable nutrition, and will reach over 2 billion consumers with sustainable nutrition solutions by 2030. For more information, visit www.kerry.com
Matterhorn StudioSupporting alternative protein companies in their first step towards using machine learning for data-driven media and process optimisation
PerkinElmerTesting and analysis equipment for plant-based foods researchers, R&D, formulators, and processors
Wild EarthThe leading US producer of alternative proteins for our pets, $12MM ARR today for our plant based products with cell based ingredients coming soon.
ExcellU.S.-based company using mycelium to produce scaffolds.
iLabsU.S.-based company building rapid testing platform for alternative protein
mk2 Biotechnologiesmk2 develops chromatography-free purification processes for recombinant peptides & proteins, amongst others for growth factors.
Molecular DevicesCompany providing bioanalytical solutions for protein and cell biology in life science research, pharmaceutical and biotherapeutic development.
NeattmeatIndia-based company focusing on solutions for cultivated meat industry
QubiconAustria-based company that offers services and products for bioprocess digitalization and optimization
TriplebarUS-based biological science platform for developing fermentation and cultivated protein as well as medical solutions.

• Read GFI’s excellent 2022 State of the Industry report on cultivated meat and seafood.

You might have seen recent, splashy headlines claiming that the cultivated meat could be worse for the climate than meat from animals. These were all based on a single, pre-print study that has not yet been through peer-review, and that is contradicted by many other studies. It is based on the assumption that cultivated meat will be produced using the same technologies that are used for biopharmaceuticals. However, technologists working on cultivated meat, and scientists studying their work, have pointed out that this assumption does not correspond to the plans or practices of the companies actually developing cultivated meat. (In part, this is because if cultivated meat were produced in this way at scale, it would forever remain too expensive to achieve any market share.)  Studies with more realistic assumptions estimate that cultivated meat could:

Several of the companies closest to bringing cultivated products to market are starting with hybrid meats, made of both plant-based and cell-cultivated ingredients. This approach can take advantage of many of the flavor and textural advantages of cultivated meat without yet solving all of the technological and cost challenges of pure cultivated meat.

Fermentation (Traditional, Biomass, and Precision)

A third approach is to cultivate microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or microalgae to produce alternative proteins. We have done forms of this for thousands of years: in traditional fermentation, microorganisms process and modify some ingredient – as when bacteria turn milk into cheese or yogurt, or a fungus turns soy into tempeh. But in newer approaches, microorganisms are engineered to create entirely new foods or ingredients. This can take a number of forms.

  • In modern biomass fermentation, the grown microorganism (for instance, microalgae) is itself the edible product. It may then be used as an ingredient in other foods – including in plant-based meat. For instance, MyForest Foods makes meatless bacon from mycelium biomass.
  • In precision fermentation, the microorganism is not the ingredient itself, but it is used like a tiny factory to produce a protein, fat, enzyme, or other ingredient. The product can then be extracted and used as an ingredient in plant-based or cultivated meat, eggs, dairy, or seafood – or in other products entirely. For instance, Zero Acre Farms uses precision fermentation to create a cooking oil.
  • (An approach related to precision fermentation is plant molecular farming, in which living plants, rather than microorganisms, are used as factories to produce proteins, enzymes, and so on. For instance, Nobell Foods uses soy plants to make vegetarian casein (a protein otherwise found in cow’s milk). While this is not fermentation, we are following GFI in grouping it together with precision fermentation, since both involve engineering living organisms to produce desired molecules.)

Fermentation opens exciting possibilities. As many as a trillion species of microorganism exist on earth, and the technology to fine-tune these microorganisms to produce specific, desirable outputs is advancing rapidly. We can tune microorganisms to produce not only proteins, but compounds that give foods the flavors and nutritional profiles we want. Microorganisms reproduce extremely quickly (whereas animal cells can take 24 hours to double in a bioreactor, bacteria can double in 20 minutes), so that in some cases they can be harvested every few hours, rather than in the months that it takes plant crops to grow. And while on many approaches microorganisms are fed with sugar or other plant biomass, companies like Solar Foods and Air Protein feed their microbes almost entirely with carbon dioxide captured from air and hydrogen gas produced by electrolyzing water. A recent study indicates that, even accounting for the land used by the solar panels that power this process, an approach like this could produce protein using thirty to sixty times less land than is needed even for soy protein. (And soy itself requires roughly seventy times less land than beef for the same amount of protein.)

Here’s a video from Air Protein laying out the company’s vision:

Microbial proteins are in early days; it’s hard to say if or when fermentation will produce products that can win enough consumers over to displace significant amounts of meat. But they don’t have to do that to have an enormous impact. If fermented protein can compete on price with plant-based proteins like soy, we could begin by feeding it to livestock, and it could free up some of the 33% of all cropland that we currently use to feed animals, as well as some of the 2.9 billion hectares we devote to pasture. Likewise, before it serves as a stand-alone dish on our dinner plates, microbial protein might serve as an important ingredient in our foods (especially processed foods), displacing both animal-based ingredients (including dairy and eggs) and plant-based ingredients like soy. Again, this could make significant inroads into our land-use and GHGs emissions.        

GFI identifies 126 companies working on fermented proteins in 2022. Here are some of them.

WebsiteDescriptionMedia
FermtechOxford-based precision fermentation technology company improving yields and reducing costs of protein production.Business Magazine
Prime RootsStartup working on meat analogs made from mycoproteinMy Climate Journey
ShiruUS-based biotechnology research startup aimed at creating sustainable functional ingredients, starting with gelatin and egg replacements, for alternative proteins and other plant-based foods.PRNewswire
Zero Cow FactoryProduces milk protein using microbial fermentation.PRNewswire
Motif FoodWorksUS-based maker of functional ingredients for plant-based foods using fermentation.PRNewswire
Aqua Cultured FoodsU.S.-based company that produces whole-muscle cut sushi-quality seafood alternatives using microbial fermentationTechCrunch
Cocoon BioscienceProduce bioactive proteins and enzymes for food and health spacesFutureofProteinProduction
Nature’s FyndUS-based company that uses fermentation to produce plant-based patties and cream cheeseMy Climate Journey
70/30 FoodtechShanghai-based mycelium protein company that produces vegan shredded chicken
Adamo FoodsUK-based company working on fungi-based steak.
AIOÄIO is a start-up from Estonia harnessing biotechnology and valorising local by-products to produce high value fats and oils.
Air ProteinU.S.-based startup focusing on using a closed loop carbon cycle to create food grade protein
Algama FoodsPlatform for microalgae-based plant-based foods and ingredients (including egg, seafood, meat, and dairy replacements)
ArkeonAustria-based company using gas fermentation to produce protein.
BalleticFoodsStartup working on creating proteins designed for improving athletic performance using precision fermentation.
Better DairyUK-based company producing animal-free dairy products using precision fermentation.
Bio in FoodA Brazilian-based company that customizes yeasts for food application
BioscienzProduces egg proteins using fermentation platform (overexpression of the chicken ovalbumin gene in a fungus) (part of a larger business)
Bolder FoodsCombined fermentation and plant-based technologies to create biomimicked dairy products
Bond Pet FoodsMicrobially produced animal proteins for pet food.
Bosque FoodsU.S.-based company producing minimally processed whole-cut meat and fish alternatives grown naturally from fungal mycelium
BotanyaiU.S.-based company blending technology and precision fermentation to produced recreated meat and fish products
BRAIN BiotechA leading industrial biotechnology specialist with a focus on nutrition, health and the environment
Brave RobotUS-based company using precision fermentation to create animal-free ice cream. They utilize Perfect Day’s whey protein.
Change FoodsProtein and fat production for dairy (starting with cheese) using precision fermentation.
Chunk FoodsMakes clean label, plant-based whole cut products.
CirceFermentation of dairy triglycerides and synthetic polymers (spinout of the Wyss Institute)
Cultivated BioscienceStartup developing a fat ingredient from oleaginous yeast, which offers the creaminess needed for plant-based dairy
CultzymeIntelligent multipurpose bioreactors for advanced biotech solutions.
Daisy LabNew Zealand-based company utilizing precision fermentation to produce dairy proteins
De Novo DairyDe Novo Dairy produces milk proteins via precision fermentation.
eatmyplantsGermany-based company creating seafood with microalgae.
Eden BioBiotech start up using machine learning to optimise precision fermentation yields.
Eden BrewAustralia-based startup producing milk proteins via precision fermentation.
Fresh StartFermentation based non-GM functional proteins for the food industry, starting with vegan ovalbumin and related proteins
EmmayVietnam-based company that produces fungi-based meat using mycelium technology
enGenes BiotechAustrian-based company with proprietary technology for cost-effective recombinant protein production using Escherichia coli or other bacteria.
Mix Ennallin ButterDevelops a wide range of natural aromatic molecules, including the vanillin. Also maker of buttery vanilla flavorings for dairy products from microbes (part of a larger business)
Esencia FoodsBuilding alternative fish and seafood based on mushroom mycelium
FarmlessDutch company that produced alternative proteins with precision fermentation (no light, no animals, no land).
Final FoodsProvides open source bioreactor and courses on fermentation alt protein production. Current offerings include courses on heme, GFP, and whey protein production
FomoStartup working on producing milk proteins for dairy products with microbes
FUMI IngredientsProduces an egg replacement ingredient with microbial fermentation.
Future CowFuture Cow is Brazilian first cellular agricultural startup, developing an innovative technology that produces real milk without cows.


Using precise fermentation, we are able to replicate the molecular proteins produced by cows in labs, without any animal cells being taken – just a digitized copy of the cow gene.
FybraworkDeveloping whole muscle meat through yeast fermentation
Harmony Baby NutritionU.S.-based company that produces infant formula using precision fermentation to produce human breast milk proteins
MyhelainaNew york-based company that produces infant milk formula components using human proteins derived from precision fermentation
MYCO HomeUK-based company that creates plant-based meat using mushrooms
ImagindairyProduces animal-free dairy products and uses AI technology with systems biology to increase the expression of milk proteins in microflora.
InnomyCompany producing fungi-based meat.
Kinoko-TechOffers an alternative protein based on mycelium from edible mushrooms, legumes, and grains.
Koralo FoodsEU-based company that produces an all natural, delicious and nutritious vegan fish alternative
Libre FoodsCreates whole-cut products grown from fungal mycelium.
Liven ProteinsCanada-based precision fermentation company offering novel functional protein ingredients that can be used by the plant-based food industry to enhance the sensory qualities of food formulations. They make animal-free protein ingredients with identical textures and functional properties as animal proteins. Liven’s protein ingredients are produced by fermenting agri-food co-products, creating a circular economy.
MAASHMAASH is an eco responsible food and feed protein ingredient producer using a fermentation technology. Thanks to our filamentous fungi, our protein has that meat-like texture, is exceptionally healthy for both human and animal consumption, and has a high and balanced protein content.
MatiFoodsEstonia-based company producing meat products made from mycelium.
MayamilkTurkey-based company that uses precision fermentation to produce animal-free dairy proteins and fats with the same sensory experience that animal-based dairy provides
Meati FoodsWhole muscle meats made from fungi marketing under “Meati” brand and selling B2B. Utilizes spent grains from brewing
EstoniaMeet Future is an alt-protein startup from Estonia that is developing mycoprotein-based meat alternatives.
MelibioUS-based company producing bee-free honey using precision fermentation.
MOA FoodsSpanish company that produces a high-value protein by transforming food waste and by-products, through a fermentation process optimized by AI
EatModern KitchenUS-based producer of animal-free cream cheese made with Perfect Day precision fermentation whey protein.
More FoodsProducing beef via a high protein yeast blend.
MoreMeatMoreMeat was established in 2022 by the former chairman of the Asian Mycology Society, executives and core scientists of multinational companies. The company is committed to using the leading microbial and synthetic biology technology platform to meet the growing demand of human beings for alternative proteins and healthy foods , to discover, screen and transform strains that can efficiently produce target proteins from the huge domestic fungal biodiversity resources.
MushlabsProduces food from edible mushroom mycelia.
Mycel ProjectProduce mycelium for plant-based meat and next gen material applications.
MycorenaFungi-based protein for food applications (Swedish meatballs) using industrial side streams
Mycotech CorpProducer of pea and rice proteins fermented by shiitake mycelium.
MyocovationSingapore based mycoprotein technology company.
NaplasolNaplasol offers 100% natural, mycoprotein structures. Our sustainable semi-finished products have an excellent, unique structure and unsurpassed nutritional value for your consumer product.
Our production process is based on an ancient tradition that we have optimised down to the last detail. Our state of the art production facility enables us to meet your demands on taste and structure.
Naplasol is a Belgian production plant in Bree that specialises in plant proteins. It is part of the VEOS Group, one of the global leaders in the animal protein market.
New Culture FoodStartup using fermentation to produce animal-free casein for cheese and has started with mozzarella
New Wave BiotechUK-based company developing downstream process optimization software using computational modeling to accelerate R&D, reduce production costs and improve product sustainability.
NoblegenNoblegen produces high-value ingredients and alternative meat products (under the company “Eunite Foods”) via a proprietary technique called ‘facilitated expression’ utilizing algae
NoMyNorwegian company producing foods and materials from mycelium (the root-like filaments of fungi)
Nosh BiofoodsA Berlin-based company utilizing biomass fermentation to produce protein and technical functional ingredients.
NovaccaProduces milk proteins using fermentation platform.
NutropyFrance-based company that develops animal-free plug & play milk replacement for large scale dairy applications.
OdontellaSmoked salmon slices produced using microalgae.
Onego BioFinland-based company developing animal-free egg whites through precision fermentation.
Some FoodsSingapore-based company that produces fermentation-derived seafood and egg products, including a hardboiled egg under the brand “OsomeEgg”
Otro FoodsBelgium-based company that produces egg white protein with precision fermentation.
Paleo TastePaleo develops meat and fish proteins through precision fermentation. When added to plant-based products their ingredients create an ultimate meat or fish experience.
Pan’s Mushroom JerkyUS-based company creating mushroom-based jerky.
Perfect Day FoodsProduces milk proteins using fermentation platform.
Phyx44India-based company that produces animal-free dairy proteins & fats to recreate milk
PlanetariansDeveloper of ingredient technology system designed to upcycle by-products and solid food waste into high-protein high fiber ingredients.
Pow BioUS based company specializing in high throughput fermentation for alternative protein production.
PreFer FoodSwedish based company producing alternative dairy products based on milk protein produced via precision fermentation
PromyoIndia-based company developing mushroom mycelium based products
Protein DistilleryGerman foodtech company producing customizable vegan protein to fully substitute all functionalities of animal protein, paving the way towards sustainable food production.
PulluloSingapore-based startup that upcycles agriculture leftovers such as fruits & vegetables into microbial for various food applications using disruptive fermentation technology.
Real Deal MilkSpain-based company that produces milk and dairy products using precision fermentation
RedrinSingapore – based company that produces alternative milk, meat and seafood by using fermentation and yeast
RemilkIsrael-based company that develops microbial fermentation technology for creating dairy products using real milk proteins
rethinkbioDeveloping alternative protein ingredients from microalgal biomass which can be used for various applications across meat, seafood and dairy.
Sempera OrganicsSempera Organics produces mushroom-based ingredients and proprietary blends for use in alternative protein products.
ShroomeatsUS-based company producing mushroom-based meat products.
SincarneUS-based company focused on creating mycoprotein products for both wholesale and retail markets.
Sophie’s BionutrientsAlgae-based protein. BioNutrients will use local food waste, and limited amounts of water to produce micro-algae protein within metropolitan areas in many parts of the globe.
Standing Ovation France-based company producing casein through precision fermentation.
Superbrewed FoodsProduces cheese and dairy products using microbes.
Tempty FoodsDenmark-based company producing mycelium-based meat products
Ten LivesUS-based startup developing sustainable, vegan cat snacks.
The Better Meat coFermentation experts creating delicious mycelium ingredients for food companies to make the most convincing alt-meats.
Clara FoodsProduces egg proteins using a precision fermentation platform.
The Mediterranean Food LabUses raw materials of the Mediterranean Diet: grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds to drive fermentation.
The Protein BreweryProducer of “Fermotein” fungi based protein for human consumption to replace meat
Those Vegan CowboysAnimal-free dairy company
Triton Algae InnovationsProduces heme and other meat-like compounds from a green algae called Chlamydomonas reinhardti for plant-based meat applications. In addition to ingredients, the startup’s first retail product will be a tuna analog.
UnibioUse methanotrophs to make biomass for food and feed
UpdairyBrazilian-based company producing dairy ingredients through precision fermentation.
Walding FoodsGermany-based company producing mushroom-based chicken.
Wild MicrobesA US-based company with a catalog of exceptional microbes for bio production.
XuerongChina-based company that produces Fungi-based meat and ingredients.
Yali BioBuilding a synthetic biology platform to tailor-make climate-smart foods from renewable resources
YeastupA Swiss startup company upcycles brewer’s spent yeast and extracts various ingredients such as proteins and fibers.
Zero Acre FarmsU.S.-based company that creates alternative cooking oil produced by microorganisms and fermentationMy Climate Journey
All G FoodsAustralia-based company that produces plant-based meat products, under the brand “BUDS,” and dairy products, under the brand “MilkCELL,” using precision fermentation.
Le Groupe BelFrance-based conglomerate of cheese brands, including launching an animal-free line, called “Nurishh Incredible Dairy,” in 2023.
Plant OriginThailand-based company. Creating rice bran protein by sidestream valorising from rice production
Strive MilkUS based company that develops Strive Brand Plant-Based beverages enriched with Animal-Free Whey Protein, Alt Milk produced with Animal-Free Whey Protein and Sports Protein Shakes and Protein Waters produced with Animal-Free Whey Protein.
Tomorrow FarmsU.S.-based company that builds and grows brands of various alternative protein products, including a company producing milk using microbial fermentation called Bored Cow
Dare Vegan CheeseUS-based producer of traditionally crafted plant-based cheese.
Meeat Food TechMeeat Food Tech Oy is Finnish a new food industry company that was established in 2020 based on the “Muu” plant-based products launched by Pouttu. Most of our products are made of pea protein and fermented fava beans. We also use soy and wheat as protein sources. Besides these ingredients, our products contain water, canola oil and spices, for example.
MoonLabTaiwan-based producer of artisan plant-based cheese and other dairy and baked products.
NurasaSingapore-based government-backed organization to support foodtech companies through providing investments, lab facilities (Food Tech Innovation Centre), and market facilities.
PoseidonaWe develop sustainable proteins from algal waste and invasive biomass to create the tastiest, mouth watering food products.
QuornProduces f. venenatum mycoprotein-based meat substitutes. Most products use egg whites for binding, though a vegan line was recently released. Products include chicken cutlets/patties/tenders/nuggets, turkey, burgers, and breakfast products. Parent company is based in the Philippines.
SojaBioFrance-based producer of soy products, including tofu, cheese, and cheesy spreads.
TypcalPlant-based manufacturer and seller of pea-based chicken/beef, mayo, and sauces.
WellmiChina-based company that produces plant-based yogurt optimized for gut health
Climate RefarmA public benefit corporation subsidizing plant-based alternatives by paying institutions like schools and hospitals through the sale of carbon credits generated through dietary shifts.
CocojuneUS-based producer of coconut-based probiotic yogurt.
CoolhausUS-based producer of a wide range of conventional, plant-based, and animal-free ice creams.
DelishuBulgarian company that produces cultured cashew products (cheese analog).
EpocaUS-based producer of probiotic plant-based dairy beverage made from almond milk.
GrashkaSlovenian-based company that produces plant-based deli meats.
Grounded FoodsMaker of plant-based cheese from cauliflower and hemp
NoMooBrazilian producer of cashew cheese, butter, and mayo.
Pure Green Extract1. A US based R&D innovation and commercialization plant based protein hub located in Oregon. Providing a wide range of services including R&D, Design, Scale-up, Operation, OPEX/CAPEX analysis, Biz Development, Technical Marketing and
2. Offering startup companies a platform with full access to a one-of-a-kind R&D and Commercialization facility including:
a. State-of-the-art laboratory, consists of (1) a wide range of protein concentration and isolation equipment; (2) In house protein functionality analysis; (3) Sensory and Color analysis;
b. An R&D Pilot Plant including: (1) Small scale spray drying; (2) various equipment for solvent and water fractionations and the ability to rent and source special equipment as required.
c. A food grade (Organic and Kosher), Small Commercial Scale wet fractionation production line with flexibility to incorporate various fractionation technologies and equipment – all are fully scalable and product can be sold as a food ingredient for Proof of Market acceptance and POC purposes.
3. A team of specialists to support the overall R&D and small commercialization work by planning, analyzing, exploring different technologies, and eventually /translating selected processes into a reliable techno-economic model for establishment of a large scale operation.
4. Potential partnership, co-investment and Business Development services to connect between reliable projects and ventures that are actively looking to invest in project that can show positive margins and de-risking activates that all can be done under one roof with Pure Green Extraction. .
Quazy FoodsGerman startup developing microalgae-based seafood products using fermentation, starting with canned tuna.
Le SojamiFrace-based company specializing in soybean lactofermentation to produce a range of tasty dairy-free, gluten-free, vegan spreads from organic GMO-free soy.
SPX FlowUS-based company that manufactures equipment and end-to-end systems for nutritional and plant-based products
Tyne CheeseUK-based producer of plant-based cheese using organic cashew nuts.
VackaSpanish company designs and produces fermented plant-based food products (conventional cheese analogs)
Veggie KarmaSpain-based company producing plant-based cheese.
BiomegBIOMEG is a Singapore based boutique life sciences company enabling plant, cell and insect based protein solutions to markets of Asia Pacific. We research & develop complete food and beverage concepts for alternate protein based products for launch as B2B, B2C or QSR/Food Service Channels across all markets of Asia- Pacific.
KerryKerry is the world’s leading taste and nutrition partner for the food, beverage and pharmaceutical markets. We innovate with our customers to create great tasting products, with improved nutrition and functionality, while ensuring better impact for the planet. Our leading consumer insights, global RD&A team of 1,100+ food scientists and extensive global footprint enable us to solve our customers complex challenges with differentiated solutions. At Kerry, we are driven to be our customers’ most valued partner, creating a world of sustainable nutrition, and will reach over 2 billion consumers with sustainable nutrition solutions by 2030. For more information, visit www.kerry.com
Matterhorn StudioSupporting alternative protein companies in their first step towards using machine learning for data-driven media and process optimisation
PerkinElmerTesting and analysis equipment for plant-based foods researchers, R&D, formulators, and processors
Wild EarthThe leading US producer of alternative proteins for our pets, $12MM ARR today for our plant based products with cell based ingredients coming soon.
ExcellU.S.-based company using mycelium to produce scaffolds.
iLabsU.S.-based company building rapid testing platform for alternative protein
mk2 Biotechnologiesmk2 develops chromatography-free purification processes for recombinant peptides & proteins, amongst others for growth factors.
Molecular DevicesCompany providing bioanalytical solutions for protein and cell biology in life science research, pharmaceutical and biotherapeutic development.
NeattmeatIndia-based company focusing on solutions for cultivated meat industry
QubiconAustria-based company that offers services and products for bioprocess digitalization and optimization
TriplebarUS-based biological science platform for developing fermentation and cultivated protein as well as medical solutions.

• Read GFI’s excellent 2022 State of the Industry Report on Fermentation: Meat, seafood, eggs and dairy.

Listen to this excellent, wide-ranging My Climate Journey podcast interview with Bruce Friedrich, the founder of Good Food Institute.In this interview, Friedrich explains GFI’s mission, and gives a great survey of the prospects for alternative proteins as a climate solution and the work that still need to be done to make it happen.

One of the most important points that Friedrich makes is that even though our food system as a whole is responsible for around a quarter of all GHG emissions, the pollution of waterways and oceans, antibiotic resistant bacteria that could cause a pandemic, and the extinction of countless species because of deforestation and habitat destruction, the amount of money we invest in solutions to these problems, including those that GFI champions, is a tiny fraction of the money we invest in climate solutions related to energy. The support that governments give to these solutions through public policy and the resources that universities and philanthropies put toward them is similarly tiny. If you’re looking for a way to have an impact on the climate fight, this is an excellent place to look, because it needs so much more attention, and so much more talent, than it currently receives. If you’re a student and want to learn more, check out GFI’s excellent Student Resource Guide, as well as their page on how to establish a student group to press your university to support research on alternative proteins. And whether you’re a student or a professional, check out their alternative protein careers portal.

Strategies to reduce the impact of animal agriculture

Alternative proteins are moonshot efforts: if they can compete with animal products on taste and price, they could completely transform our agricultural system, and even our relation to the earth. But we do not know if, when, or how fully they will succeed. So, while we work hard on efforts to develop them, we also need to work on more incremental improvements to the food system at the same time. Here are three, important ways that we can reduce the climate and environmental impacts of the livestock we continue to raise.

Alternative livestock feeds

Several startups are developing alternative feeds for cattle and other livestock, to replace crops like soy and reduce the need for pasture. Companies like Entocycle, Protix, and Better Origin use food waste to grow black soldier fly larvae, which can be turned into high-protein animal feed.

Black solider fly larvae. Credit: UKTN

Startups Duckweed Bio and Lemna grow duckweed (also called lemna), an extremely fast-growing freshwater aquatic plant, as a way to produce high-protein animal feed using livestock manure as a nutrient source – preventing nutrient runoff and nitrous oxide and methane emissions from the manure in the process. (Another startup, Plantible Food, is working to use duckweed to make a high-protein ingredient in human food.)

Duckweed growing ponds. Credit: Plantible Foods

Both insects and duckweed grow far more quickly than crops like soy, using far less land and water and far fewer nutrient inputs, with much lower GHG emissions. If either or both these can scale to become an economical source of livestock feed, it could significantly reduce the impact of livestock on both biodiversity and climate.

Enteric Methane Reduction

The majority of the climate impact of cows and other ruminants comes from their digestive tracts. Microbes decompose and ferment food in ruminants’ stomachs, producing methane as a biproduct, which animals release into the atmosphere mostly by burping. This enteric methane is the largest source of emissions from beef production, and accounts for 3.7% of total global anthropogenic GHG emissions – a proportion set to increase as beef consumption rises.

Credit: The Breakthrough Institute

Start-ups are developing a number of ways to reduce enteric methane emissions. A number of startups like Blue Ocean Barns are working to find economical ways to grow and harvest a type of red seaweed called Asparagopsis taxiformis as a feed additive that disrupts the enzymes that produce methane in a cow’s stomach. The Dutch multinational DSM produces a pharmacological compound called 3-NOP that does something similar. And Mootral produces a blend of essential oils and other ingredients—including garlic and citrus extracts—that change the chemical makeup of a cow’s gut in a way that limits the growth of bacteria that release methane. Others startups and research labs are studying other sorts of food additives.

All of these approaches are in fairly early stages. More science is required to test their efficacy, and more work needs to be done to make them affordable for farmers. Red seaweed is difficult to farm economically at sufficient scale, for instance. A difficulty facing approaches that rely on food additives is that most enteric methane is produced by cows grazing on pastures, rather than by cows in feedlots. To reach these pastured cows, additives will have to be formed into mineral blocks for the cows to lick, or something similar. A startup called Akrea Bio is working to circumvent this challenge with a vaccine for cows that would reduce enteric methane. Another startup, Zelp, uses masks on cows to capture (and then oxidize) cow burps, rather than preventing them.

Credit: Zelp

Here are some companies working on ways to reduce enteric emissions.

NameDescriptionMedia
MootralNatural feed supplement that reduces methane emissions from ruminantsNYTimes
Rumin8Compound targetting methanogenic pathways in the rumen of livestock to reduce methane productionAgriinvestor
Alga BiosciencesAlgae supplement to reduce ruminant methane productionImpakter
Blue Ocean BarnsEnteric Methane Reduction feed additive using red algae
MootralEnteric Methane Reduction cattle feed additive using essential oils to reduce methagenesis
DSMEnteric Methane Reduction feed additive via 3-NOP
ZelpCow mask to capture and oxidize enteric methane
Rumin8Enteric Methane Reduction feed additvite based on red algae, but produced pharamocologicallyThe Guardian
CH4 GlobalEnteric Methane Reduction feed additive using red algae
Alga BiosciencesEnteric Methane Reduction feed additive using red algae
Greener GrazingEnteric Methane Reduction feed additive using red algae
Seascape RestorationsEnteric Methane Reduction feed additive using red algae
Future FeedEnteric Methane Reduction feed additive using red algae
SeastockEnteric Methane Reduction feed additive using red algae
SymbrosiaEnteric Methane Reduction feed additive using red algae
Primary OceanEnteric Methane Reduction feed additive using red algae
AgolinEnteric Methane Reduction feed additive using red algae
The Seaweed CompanyEnteric Methane Reduction feed additive using red algae
Sea ForestEnteric Methane Reduction feed additive using red algae
Volta GreentechEnteric methane reduction feed addivite using seaweed
Arkea BioVaccine for enteric methane reductionFast Company

• Read this article from Climate Tech VC for a helpful survey of the whole space.

Manure management

Animal manure pollutes streams and waterways with nutrients, and it releases nitrous oxide, a powerful GHG, into the atmosphere. Manure deposited by animals directly onto pasture and rangeland is responsible for the majority of these effects (shown as “Land N2O” on the Our World in Data emissions pie chart at the beginning of this page). The effects of manure on pasture can be reduced by planting specific plants and grasses that are especially good at using excess nitrogen; but this sort pasture management can be expensive, and its effects are not large. A smaller proportion of nitrous oxide and nitrogen pollution comes from manure in intensive feeding operations (shown as “manure management” in the pie chart above). These effects can be reduced in a number of ways, such as cooling manure, separating liquid and solids, aerating manure, applying chemical nitrification inhibitors, composting, or feeding the manure to anaerobic digesters, which produce biogas that can be used for energy.

What about regenerative grazing?

“Regenerative” grazing practices seek to manage pasture in a way that increases biodiversity and soil health, and as a result sequesters carbon from the atmosphere as soil organic carbon. A central practice is adaptive multi-paddock (AMP) grazing, a system that attempts to mimic natural herbivore grazing by bunching livestock together, and then rotating them quickly among different areas of pasture, so that each area is first intensively grazed, trampled, and fertilized by manure, then given time to recover. (In conventional grazing, by contrast, cattle are left to move wherever they like in a large pasture over an entire season – with the result that they overgraze the particular plants they prefer most, which eventually reduces the number of plant species on a field.) Evidence that AMP grazing can improve soil health and increase soil organic carbon compared to conventional grazing practices is incomplete, but it is promising enough to suggest that a large scale transition from conventional to regenerative grazing would almost certainly support soil ecology and biodiversity, and could have real climate benefits as well.

Many proponents of regenerative grazing read the evidence as pointing to an even more tantalizing prospect: carbon-neutral beef. Evidence is very limited, but one careful study shows that, at least in some conditions, AMP grazing can increase carbon sequestration in soil so much that it cancels out the enteric methane, nitrous oxide and other GHGs that the grazing cows and their manure emit, making the grazing process carbon-neutral or even carbon-negative. (The same study notes that it may be a temporary effect, because after some years of AMP management, pasture soil may become “saturated” with organic carbon, so that less additional carbon is sequestered each year. Once this happens, the GHG emissions from cattle raised on that pasture would no longer be balanced out; but biodiversity and soil health benefits would remain.) 

Unfortunately, the idea that regenerative grazing could give us carbon-neutral beef ignores the huge role that cattle play in agricultural sprawl and land use change. When we graze cows on pasture during the final months of their lives, we produce only half as much beef per acre as when we “finish” cows in feedlots, even accounting for the land needed to produce the crops for feed in feedlots. If ranchers who finish their cattle in feedlots were to transition to raising pasture-fed beef instead, this would reduce the amount of beef available to meet demand on world markets, and the price of beef would rise globally – giving cattle ranchers in countries like Brazil strong incentive to clear more forests and wildlands. So, even if pasture-raising cattle really is “carbon-neutral” when analyzed locally, it may still be a disaster for both biodiversity and the climate when viewed from within a more holistic perspective on the global food system.

Even if we could wave a magic wand and cut global the demand for beef in half overnight, it would be far better for both biodiversity and the climate (though not for cows) if we rewilded the land that this would free up, rather than using it to switch from feedlot finishing to pasture finishing. AMP grazing may be better than conventional grazing; but wild ecosystems with natural herbivores and predators can host more biodiversity and sequester more carbon than even the most sustainably-managed pastures.

(Note: In a 2013 TED talk, Zimbabwean rancher Allan Savory claimed that a system similar to AMP grazing could sequester enough carbon from the atmosphere into soils to return the atmosphere to pre-industrial levels. We’re mentioning it here, because Savory’s TED talk went viral, has been viewed close to 9 million times, has started a movement among cattle ranchers, and has led some big beef producers to advertise “climate-friendly beef.” His claims were further amplified in a popular Netflix documentary movie narrated by Woody Harrelson. However, despite its popular appeal, there is no evidence at all to support this claim, and very strong evidence against it.)

Crops

We’ve concentrated on animal agriculture so far, because it’s the largest source of GHGs in the AFOLU sector. But every part of this sector is a source of GHGs (and of other, serious environmental harms). Producing nitrogen fertilizer emits carbon dioxide, and the fertilizer itself releases nitrous oxide when it is spread on fields. Rice fields emit methane when they are flooded. Soils lose carbon when they are plowed. Crop wastes emit carbon dioxide when they are burned on fields after harvest. And forests emit carbon dioxide when they are cleared to make room for crops. We will need to reduce all of these emissions in order to feed ten billion people without cooking the planet.

A place to start, in thinking about this problem, is with the fact that our ability to feed eight billion people today (and to feed many of them meat) is a modern miracle. It is possible only because the amount of food that we are able to produce on an acre of land (the “crop yield” of the land) has increased, year after year, for more than sixty years. The result is that while the amount of land used to grow crops has increased, it has not had to increase nearly as much as global population in order for food production to keep up. The chart below shows the production of cereal crops like rice and wheat – but you can find similar charts for the yields of all sorts of crops at Our World in Data.

Source: Our World in Data

We’ve been able to increase crop yields by using more productive crop varieties and more fertilizer, by irrigating farm lands, and by increasing mechanization. But the gains have not been evenly distributed around the world. The nations of Sub-Saharan Africa, in particular, have had some of the smallest gains in productivity.

Source: Our World in Data

This “yield gap” between nations with low agricultural yields and other nations has been disastrous for low-yield nations. It has meant, first of all, that people in these nations have suffered from malnutrition and food insecurity. It has also meant that even when people in these nations have had enough to eat, they have had to expend a high proportion of their income, and their labor, to get it – so that children cannot attend school, because their labor is needed to work fields, for instance, and so that little spare income is available for things like housing and healthcare.

And whereas countries with growing crop yields have been able to feed growing populations without devoting more land to agriculture, in low-yield countries, feeding a growing population has required expanding agricultural land.

Source: Our World in Data

This trend toward expanding crop land is particularly concerning in Africa. Whereas the populations of other parts of the world are expected to level out and then decline in coming decades, the population of Africa is set to grow through the 21st Century – from 1.4 billion people – 17% of the world’s population – today, to 4 billion – 40% of the world’s population – by 2100. If crop yields do not improve, this will mean converting enormous swaths of forest,  savannah and wetland into agricultural land – at tremendous cost to ecosystems and the species that depend upon them and, as the carbon stored in those ecosystems is released, to the atmosphere.

Source: Our World in Data.

In order to continue to feed the world’s growing population, crop yields will need to continue to increase everywhere – and they will need to increase most in the places, like much of Sub-Saharan Africa, where they are now lowest. And in order to do this without further cooking the planet, we need to do this while lowering agricultural emissions. How can we do this?

Nitrogen Fertilizer Production and Use

Nitrogen fertilizer use has been one of the keys to increasing yields – and its absence has been a big reason that low-yield countries have stayed low-yield. Nitrogen is essential for photosynthesis, and it is an ingredient in the amino acids that proteins are made of. Nitrogen makes up 78% of the atmosphere – but it exists there in the inert form N2, which plants cannot use. In nature, the main path from atmospheric N2 to nitrogen that can be used by plants and animals begins with microbes that live freely in soil or in the roots of legumes and other plants. These take nitrogen from the air and “fix” it into biologically available forms, such as ammonia (NH3). Lightning also fixes atmospheric nitrogen into a form that plants can use. But the modern crop yields on which our current global population of 8 billion people depends were enabled only in the early 1900s, when the German chemists Fritz Haber and Karl Bosch developed a way to combine atmospheric N2 with Hydrogen (H2) at very high pressures and temperatures to create ammonia (NH3), which may be used as fertilizer or further processed to create urea fertilizer (CH4N2O). Now, a century later, it is estimated that an astounding 80% of the nitrogen in human bodies was fixed through the Haber-Bosch process.

Nitrogen fertilizer contributes to climate change both when it is produced and when it is used. The Haber-Bosch process requires hydrogen as an input. This is usually obtained by burning fossil fuels in order to subject fossil methane gas (CH4) to a high temperature, high pressure process that splits the carbon from the hydrogen, releasing the carbon to the atmosphere as CO2. Then, more fossil fuels are burned to produce the extremely high temperatures and pressures necessary to combine the hydrogen with nitrogen in the Haber-Bosch process. Producing fertilizer in this way is responsible for about 1.5% of global GHG emissions. (These emissions show up under the “industry” and “energy use in industry” sectors of the emissions pie-chart.)  Then, when it is spread on fields, nitrogen that is not used by plants is washed away, releasing nitrous oxide in the process. This accounts for another 4.1% of global GHG emissions.

Given that parts of the world like Sub-Saharan Africa need to use more nitrogen fertilizer, how can we reduce emissions from fertilizer globally? A large part of the answer is that many parts of the world use too much now. Globally, only about 42% of fertilizer that is spread on fields is used by crops. The rest is washed away, winding up in oceans and the atmosphere. But this global average “nitrogen efficiency” masks large differences, as the map below shows.

Source: Carbon Brief

According to a 2015 study, if global average nitrogen efficiency rose to 67% (just short of the 71.6% that the US achieves), total fertilizer demand could be reduced by 48% by 2050.

Precision farming

The main cause of nitrogen inefficiency is not simply farmers applying more fertilizer than plants can use. Plants need different amounts of nitrogen at different times in their growth cycle. But farmers often opt to apply fertilizer in slower seasons, like after harvesting in the autumn or before planting in the spring. This means that fertilizer sits unused on soil for long periods, where much of it may be washed away before plants are able to absorb it.  

“Precision farming” is a general-purpose name for farming practices that use detailed data about what is happening in fields so as to apply inputs, such as fertilizer, water, herbicides and pesticides, only when and where they are needed, in the amounts that are needed. Many companies are working on very high-tech approaches to precision farming. For instance, instead of dousing a whole field with the same amount of fertilizer, a tractor’s computers may use data from sensors on drones and artificial intelligence to determine how much fertilizer is needed in different parts of the field, and may use variable rate spreaders to dispense precisely the amount that is needed (and can be absorbed) in each spot.

Computerized map of a farm, showing soil nitrogen levels. Credit: FS22 Modhub

Computerized control of tractor with variable rate fertilizer spreader. Credit: FS22 Modhub

Highly mechanized approaches are likely to be too expensive for farmers in many parts of the world for the foreseeable future. However, the approach can work with technologies as simple and affordable as a mobile phone. For instance, the non-profit Precision Agriculture for Development uses cellphones to give farmers customized, data-informed advice about the application of fertilizer and a host of other inputs, in ten different developing countries. And even lower-tech approaches can achieve many of the same results. For instance, agronomists have developed charts like the one below to allow farmers to see exactly when their plants are ready for fertilizer.

Distributed, green fertilizer production

The Haber-Bosch process operates most efficiently at huge scale. So, although the world produces about 185 million metric tons of ammonia each year (80% of which is used for nitrogen fertilizer), this production is concentrated in only a few hundred enormous plants around the world, some of which produce over a million tons per year. These plants emit not only enormous quantities of GHGs but also other, local pollution. Ammonia (or a derivative of it) is then shipped – sometimes thousands of miles – from these huge facilities to the farms around the world where it is needed, further adding to the emissions footprint.

A Haber-Bosch ammonia plant. Credit: New Scientist

Two startups, Nitricity and Atmonia are seeking to decarbonize the production of nitrogen fertilizer, by substituting emissions-free processes for the Haber-Bosch process. And both are seeking to decentralize production, and so avoid the emissions required to transport fertilizer long distances from large, centralized facilities. Nitricity has invented a small plasma reactor that imitates the way in which lightning fixes nitrogen in the air. Atmonia has invented a nitrogen electrolyzer to do something similar. Both processes require no inputs besides electricity, air and water. The Nitricity reactor is small enough that it can be located on a farm, powered only by a small solar array, and used to produce fertilizer on-site. The Atmonia unit is larger – but still small enough to be sited close to the farms that will use its product. Nitricity’s process brings a further benefit: it produces fertilizer in nitrate form, which is more readily absorbed by plants than the urea fertilizer that most Haber-Bosch plants produce. (Urea is used, not because it is best for farmers, but because it is easiest to store and transport.) Using nitrates produced on site may allow for a significant increase in fertilizer efficiency, and a significant decline in nitrous oxide emissions.

Leguminous cover crops

Microbes that grow symbiotically in the roots of leguminous plants and fix nitrogen from the air are a key part of the natural nitrogen cycle. Traditional and indigenous systems of agriculture make use of this natural fertilizer source, either by planting legumes alongside other plants (as in the Native American “three sisters” system of planting bean, squash, and maize (corn) together), or planting legumes as “cover crops” during the time when fields would otherwise lie fallow. These techniques can reduce the need for synthetic fertilizer significantly. Nitrogen fixed in this way is taken up by plants more efficiently than synthetic fertilizer, resulting in less nutrient runoff and less nitrous oxide in the air. (We will discuss other benefits of cover cropping under “regenerative agriculture” below.) However, these practices are not always feasible or economical for farmers. Planting crops together (as in the three sisters system) is not compatible with the mechanized, labor-sparing methods practiced by most large farms. In cold climates, when the final harvest is close to the first frost, cover crops may not have time to grow; and in warm climates, there may be two or three harvests per year, leaving insufficient time for cover cropping in between.

Microbial Fertilizers

Startups like Kula Bio and Pivot Bio are working to create nitrogen-fixing soil microbes, like those found in the roots of legumes – but that can work with plants like corn, wheat, and sorghum. These microbial soil amendments can cut the need for synthetic fertilizer by up to 80% now – and startups are working to produce versions that will eliminate that need. Here are some of the companies working this area:

NameDescriptionMedia
Pivot BioNitrogen-fixing microbes to coat seeds, reducing need for synethetic nitrogen fertilizer. Canary Media
SoundFertilizer fluid activates nitrogen-fixing and phosoporous-processing microbes already in soil. Mimics root exududates that signal and feed microbes.Pacific Northwest AG Network
AzoticMicrobes sprayed on corn or other crop field, then taken up into plant cells to fix nitrogen directly wihtin the plantCroplife
Concentric AgMicrobial consortia for soil and plant health
HolganixMicrobial consortia for soil and plant health
Kula BioLiquid, crop-agnostic fertilizer of N-fixing bacteria . My Climate Journey
NewLeaf SymbioticsNitrogen-fixing microbes tailored for different crop species

What about organic farming? 

Organic farming prohibits the use of synthetic fertilizer. In its place, it uses a host of practices, including cover cropping and crop rotation, to build soil health, supplemented by manure as an alternative nitrogen input.

There are many possible environmental benefits to organic farming, and some of its practices (including cover cropping) may have real climate benefits. However, the best evidence suggests that taken as a whole, whatever the local environmental benefits of organic farming, it is not a solution to agriculture’s climate problems, in particular. This is for two, different reasons.

  1. Manure is often take up by plants less efficiently than synthetic fertilizer, resulting in more nutrient runoff and more nitrous oxide emissions.
  2. Organic farming often has lower crop yields per acre than non-organic. This means that if the world were to convert to organic farming, more land would need to be converted to agricultural use to produce the same amount of food – resulting in more emissions (and more biodiversity loss) as forests and other wildlands are cleared.

The claim that organic farming has lower yields is disputed. Proponents of organic farming point to studies showing individual organic farms with yields as high or nearly as high as conventional farms. However, a 2017 meta-analysis found that across nearly 750 agricultural systems, organic farming had lower yields than conventional farming. (The same study found that the organic farms had more nutrient runoff, and had similar GHG emissions.)

What seems to be the case is that organic farms, especially smaller ones, are sometimes able to use human labor to make up for the yield-enhancing benefits provided by the chemical inputs and mechanized processes of conventional farming. Weeds can be controlled by hand weeding, for instance, instead of by the application of chemical herbicides. This increased labor-intensiveness makes food produced by organic farms more expensive. However, in large parts of the world, not enough people want to work (or work at the wages farmers can afford to pay) as agricultural laborers. And where organic farms cannot find the extra labor, their yields per acre are significantly lower than those of conventional farms.

Soil Carbon and Regenerative Agriculture

Crop farming contributes to GHG emissions in another way, in addition to carbon dioxide from land use change, methane and nitrous oxide: it releases organic and inorganic carbon stored in soils. This happens when soil is left bare and exposed to the elements, and so is lost to erosion, or blown away by winds. And it happens when the complex soil biomes composed of plant roots, insects, mycorrhizal fungi and other microbes are impoverished and degraded by the practice of monocropping, or by being doused with herbicides, pesticides, or fertilizers, or by the physical disruption of tilling or plowing – so that they give up much of their organic carbon. (These emissions of carbon are represented in the “cropland” sector in the Our World in Data emissions pie-chart at the top of this page.) In the 12,000 years since the Agricultural Revolution, the world’s soils are estimated to have lost a whopping 133 billion tons of carbon. By comparison, in the time since the Industrial Revolution, humans have emitted about 450 million tons of carbon.

“Regenerative Agriculture” refers to a broad and open-ended suite of practices and techniques that aim to maintain or restore soil health, and with it soil’s ability to sequester carbon. It includes cover cropping, intercropping (in which different crops are interspersed on the same field), agroforestry (in which crops are grown alongside trees), integrating livestock on arable fields (for instance by growing grass for animals to graze in the time between food crops), no-till or low-till farming (in which mechanical disruption of the soil by plowing or tilling is avoided as much as possible), and a host of other techniques.

Read this excellent introduction to regenerative agriculture and the debates surrounding it by George Cusworth and Tara Garnett.

Research into the benefits of these practices has shown promising results, but there is still considerable uncertainty around many of them, as well as variability across contexts, so more research is needed. We will not attempt to discuss the whole suite of regenerative practices, but will mention two ways in which innovation might help to avoid some of the difficult trade-offs involved in one of the most prominent regenerative approaches, no-till annual cropping.

In conventional agriculture, soil is plowed (cut through and turned over) or tilled (more lightly scraped) two or three times a year, before each planting. This is done to break up and loosen the soil, and also to kill weeds (or cover crops) that might otherwise compete with the crop to be planted. However, this also degrades or destroys the mycorrhizal fungi networks and other microbes that make up healthy, living soil, and it exposes the topsoil to the air, where the living organic matter within it quickly dies, decays and is released to the atmosphere as CO2 – and where the soil itself may be washed or blown away.  

No-till agriculture aims to avoid these effects, and keep soil intact, by using a drill seeder or similar machine to press seeds down into intact soil. Early evidence about the ability of no-till farming to sequester carbon was very encouraging – as a result, some government programs now pay farmers to use no-till techniques, and some private marketplaces will pay farmers who do this, so that they can sell carbon offsets based on the carbon that the no-till farming is supposed to sequester. However, the story has more recently been complicated. Some more recent studies have found that no-till farming can increase soil organic carbon in soil near the surface (where earlier studies took measurements), but decrease it deeper in the soil, with the result that there is no net increase overall. Other studies suggest that while the practice of no-till on its own might not help soil to sequester carbon, it may do so when used in conjunction with cover cropping. And studies point out that most no-till farmers still need to plow up their soil every few years to combat perennial weeds and soil compaction – so that much or all of the organic carbon that had been built up over the previous years is released. However, quite apart from the question whether or how much no-till farming can help soil to sequester carbon, there is widespread agreement that it is good for soil ecology, that it helps to prevent erosion, and that it has other environmental benefits.

However, no-till farming comes with a difficult trade-off. Because it does not kill weeds mechanically, by breaking through their roots and plowing them under, it usually relies on large quantities of chemical herbicides, such as glyphosate, to kill weeds before each planting. Alternatively, small organic farming operations, with an abundance of workers, may hand-weed fields, but this is too labor-intensive to be practicable on most farms, and it is expensive for the farms that do use it.

Automated precision agriculture as a solution

High-tech precision agriculture may make soon make it possible to avoid this dilemma. A number of startups are developing robotic tractors that use sensors and artificial intelligence to map every plant in a field, so that they can recognize and kill weeds. Some do this by spraying a small jet of herbicide directly at individual weeds, using far less this way than would be used to douse an entire field. Others use lasers to burn individual weeds. The Small Robot Company uses bolts of electricity. Watch their tractor in action:

Many of these companies are developing tiny, solar-powered robotic tractors that can scoot between rows of crops, and that are so light that they do not compact soil in the way that full-size tractors do. While these robotic tractors may initially be expensive, some of the companies developing them envisage continuing to own and operate the tractors themselves, but then selling weeding (and other forms of precision agriculture) as a service, so that farmers pay no up-front costs.

Here are a few of the companies developing these technologies.

NameDescriptionMedia
AigenRobotic Weeding to avoid pesticides and improve soil health425buisness
TrapticTraptic: giant farming robotsTechCrunch
Carbon RoboticsAI-controlled “LaserWeeder” identifying, targeting, and eliminating weeds using thermal energyGeekWire
Small Robot CompanyPrecision ag mapping individual plants in each field and weeding and fertilizing with small robotsFood Navigator
Earth RoverPrecision ag mapping individual plants in each field and weeding and fertilizing with small robots

Perennial crops

Plowing or weeding is necessary because most of the world’s staple agricultural crops (wheat, rice, corn, and so on) are “annuals” – that is, they are plants that live their entire life cycle within a single year. In nature, by contrast, most areas are dominated by perennials – plants with a multi-year lifecycle.

In Regenesis, George Monbiot explains this contrast, and its implications:

[Annuals] tend to colonize ground in the wake of catastrophe: a fire, a flood, a landslide, or a volcanic eruption that exposes bare rock and soil. They survive, in these circumstances, only until perennial plants return and start to mend the broken land, whereupon they are usually overwhelmed.

       But it’s not hard to see why our ancestors selected them. Plants that colonize bare ground have evolved to grow fast and invest much of their energy in seeds, rather than in deep roots or dense foliage, so that they can spread as far as possible before the new land closes up. Their seeds tend to be large and to germinate freely.

       The problem is that in cultivating annuals, we must keep the land in the catastrophic state they prefer. Every year, we must clear the soil of competing plants, puncture or turn it, and plaster it with the nutrients required to raise a crop from seed to maturity in a few months. However sensitively it is conducted, annual grain production relies on sustaining an ecological disaster for its success. (pp. 179-80)

Monbiot goes on to point to a network of researchers centered on The Land Institute, in Silana, Kansas, which has been working for more than 40 years to create an alternative: perennial staple crops. As Monbiot says, if we had perennial crops with the right features, “we would not depend on smashing living systems apart to produce our food” (p. 180). The deep roots that perennial plants grow over years not only create healthy, organic carbon storing soil ecosystems; they make these plants much more resilient to the storms and droughts that climate change will bring.

The roots of perennials (left) and annuals (right). Credit: The Land Institute

The Land Institute is attempting to create these perennial crops either by cross-breeding annual crops with their wild perennial cousins, or by selectively breeding wild perennial species that have some of the right qualities, such as high and consistent seed yield, synchronous flowering and seed maturation, and seed retention. The work is slow and painstaking. It requires growing a crop to maturity, choosing the few specimens in the crop with the best attributes, cross-pollinating them, and then growing another crop from these, over and over again. Researchers have begun to accelerate this process using techniques such as gene sequencing, genomic prediction, and marker-assisted selection. Still, since each perennial crop takes more than a year to reach maturity, this process of gradual improvement takes decades.

This approach has had one notable success so far: in 2018, researchers at Yunnan University in China, working in partnership with the Land Institute, released a perennial rice to farmers for commercial use. The variety is a hybrid of a Chinese annual rice variety and a wild African perennial of the same genus. A 2022 study found that:

  • A single planting is able to produce eight consecutive harvests over four years.
  • It accumulates both nitrogen (fixed by soil microbes) and organic carbon in its soil.
  • It makes soil better able to hold water that the plants can use.
  • Farmers strongly prefer it over annual varieties, because it saves them 58.1% of labor and 49.2% input costs in each regrowth cycle.

The Land Institute is also working on creating perennial varieties of wheat, sorghum, oilseeds, legumes, and a grain they’ve named “Kernza,” which is a domesticated version of a distant relative of annual wheat called “intermediate wheatgrass.” So far, Kernza is closest to success: it produces a tasty, edible grain – but with only about one third the yield of annual wheat.

The possibility of perennial crops with yields and qualities comparable to annual ones is a bit like the possibility of alternative proteins that are as cheap and tasty as meat from animals: if it comes to pass, it could usher in a new era of agriculture that is far more ecologically benign than today’s; so we should work on it and pour talent and resources into it. (It’s crazy that a tiny, visionary, underfunded research institute in Salina, Kansas is having to do most of the world’s research on perennialization.) But it would be unwise to bet that perennialization will come to our rescue any time soon; so we should continue to work hard on incremental improvements to farming with annual crops.

The plant varieties that the Land Institute is working on are not the only perennial food crops: trees are, of course, perennials; and so foods that grow on trees, from fruit to nuts to cacao and coffee are perennial crops. There is scope to increase the use of recognized tree crops as a sustainable food source, especially in multistrata agroforestry, where other food crops are grown in their shade. Just as exciting: a startup called Terviva has found a way to process the beans from a tree, the Pongamia, that had never previously been used for food because its beans are too bitter, but that grows in large swathes of India. Terviva’s processing de-bitters the beans, allowing us to use them as a source of both protein (for instance, in flour) and of premium oil, with qualities akin to olive oil. Pongamia trees grow readily on arid, degraded land; they require almost no fertilizer, because microbes in their roots fix nitrogen; they are extremely draught tolerant; and they can produce more nutrition per acre than soybeans (which are one of the world’s most productive crops, but also one of the most environmentally destructive).

Read this terrific article on Pongamia, Terviva’s efforts to bring it into the food system, and the impact it could have.

Reducing Food Waste

So far, we’ve talked about ways to produce the same amount of food while producing fewer emissions and less biodiversity loss. But there is another way to reduce emissions and biodiversity loss: we can grow less food. We can do this, without making people go hungry, because one third of the food that humanity produces is never eaten. If we could eliminate food waste, we would free up all the land that was used to grow that food, and we could spare all the resources that went into it – the water, fertilizer, transportation, packaging, refrigeration and so on, as well as human labor and financial capital. This would save the world a trillion dollars per year. And it would eliminated the GHGs that those resources emit at every step of the way – as well as all the methane that the wasted food itself emits when it decomposes in landfills. If food waste were a country, it would be the third largest emitter, just behind the China and the US. If we could eliminate food waste, we would take that country off the map.

It’s unlikely we’ll come close to eliminating food waste – but we can certainly reduce it. Accomplishing this is not one, single problem, however. We waste food in different ways, for different reasons, at every step of the way from farm to fork. In developing countries, consumers waste very little of the food they buy, but bad roads, lack of refrigeration, inadequate packaging, and (often) high heat and humidity all cause significant waste long before food reaches the consumer. In rich countries, more food is discarded by retailers (for instance, because it is bruised or cosmetically unappealing or nearing its “sell-by date”), and by consumers who simply leave food on their plates, or let food spoil in their fridge.

Credit: World Resources Institute

In poor countries, better infrastructure, from roads to refrigerated storehouses, could make an enormous difference. In rich countries, changes in consumer behavior can help. Policy changes can help to nudge some of these along. When university cafeterias eliminate trays, people take less food at one time, and waste less. “Sell by” dates on food are almost meaningless, but they drive both consumers and grocery stores to throw away vast quantities of food – as this hilarious, but also fascinating and informative episode of Climate Town explains:

In rich and poor countries alike, start-ups are working on ways to address food waste all along the supply chain. Check out some of these examples:

NameDescriptionMedia
Strella BiotechnologyStrella: biosensors to monitor the ripeness of fruit in real time.Waste360
MimicaDynamic labels indicate when food is spoiledFutureLearn
OlioOlio connects neighbours with each other and with local businesses so surplus food can be shared, not thrown away.TechCrunch
Clean Crop TechnologiesTreats food with ionized gasses to eliminate fungi and increase shelf-life My Climate Journey
SnactSnact makes delicious snacks from ugly unwanted fruit.Office Pantry
OneThirdCloud-based system and AI scanners reducing food waste by predicting shelf lifePRWeb
Goodr Co.Manages companies’ surplus food through redistribution, pop-up markets, and waste management My Climate Journey
Treasure8Dehydrates food waste to produce nutritous foodForbes
ColdBox StoreSolar microgrid-powered cooling for agricultural products in developing worldRMI
Imperfect FoodsDelivers cosmetically damaged foods as groceriesMy Climate Journey
AfreshSoftware to help groceries reduce food wasteWaste Dive
ApeelNatural coating extends shelf-life of produceLA Times
Better OriginInsects grown from food waste for animal feedFinancial Times
ArtycRefrigerant-free, battery-powered, reusable cooling containers for shipping medicine, foodMy Climate Journey

Biofuels

Eight percent of the food crops grown globally are wasted in another way – by being used to make biofuels. Biofuels are based on a plausible-sounding idea. Plants pull carbon from the atmosphere through photosynthesis and incorporate that carbon into their biomass. When the biomass is harvested, it can be processed and refined into fuels like ethanol or biodiesel, which are chemically similar to fossil fuels, though not identical. These biofuels can be mixed with fossil fuels or combusted on their own in engines that are made to handle them. When they are combusted, they release their carbon back to the atmosphere as CO2 – but the carbon that they release is carbon that plants have anyway absorbed from the atmosphere. So, in theory, the only extra CO2 that this process should put into the atmosphere is the CO2 produced in the course of growing, harvesting, refining and transporting the crop and the biofuel made from it. Thus biofuels are represented as “low carbon fuels” ­– in contrast to fossil fuels, which bring more carbon up out of the earth.

Biofuels became popular idea in the US and other parts of the world at the time of the oil crises of the 1970s. They were initially promoted as a way to reduce dependence on imported oil, and more recently as a low-carbon way to fuel our vehicles. Both of these claims made some sense a few decades ago, but the world has changed in two ways since then.

  1. A series of careful studies have shown biofuels can have a carbon footprint worse than that of ordinary gasoline, once land use change is taken into account – and that they drive up the price of food, and cause habitat destruction. In 2008, for instance, a new US mandate to mix ethanol in gasoline reduced US corn exports and raised the price of corn on world markets, which in turn helped cause a global food crisis that year and drove record deforestation in the Amazon as Brazilian farmers raced to plant more soybeans.
  2. With cheap renewable power and electric vehicles, we now have a better way to power ground transportation – one that was not feasible when biofuels first came on the scene. Skeptics of solar power point out that solar panels take up a lot of land that could be used for other purposes, like growing food. But using corn ethanol to fuel a car requires eighty five times more land per vehicle mile than is needed to power an EV with solar. Put another way: the one million acres Wisconsin devotes to corn produce enough energy to fuel 700,000 passenger cars for a year. Solar panels on that same land could power 60 million EVs for a year.

The political and economic power of agricultural lobbies has kept policy mandates requiring biofuels and lavish subsidies for them in place. The US government still requires a 10% blend of ethanol in gasoline. Climate-forward states like California support the use of biofuels, including soy biodiesel, through “low-carbon fuel standards.” And the European Union’s new climate policies could convert 20% of the continent’s farmland to growing crops for biofuel and biomass power. The biofuel trade associations that back these policies point to studies that underplay or simply ignore the land-use changes they induce.

Biofuel is also promoted as a way to make Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF). The case for biofuel here is a bit better than the case for surface transportation, because we have fewer economical ways to decarbonize aviation. However, so long as the SAF is made from food crops (or from crops grown on land that could be used for food crops), the same problems with land-use changes, and the GHGs (and other harms) they brings about, remain. And there are other possible routes to decarbonizing aviation, including electrification (for short-haul flights), hydrogen, e-fuel-based SAFs, and biofuel SAFs made from agricultural waste, rather than food crops. (We discuss the alternatives in more detail in our page on TRANSPORTATION.)

In the effort to decarbonize industry, a number of sectors beyond liquid fuels are also looking to biomass as a source of carbon that has not been pulled from the earth. Companies are making bioplastics and other biomass-based chemicals as a replacement for conventional plastics and chemicals that are made from fossil fuels. Startups like Charm Industrial want to use plants as a way to capture carbon which can then be sequestered underground. Many, but not all of these companies recognize the importance of land-use change, and so are seeking to use waste biomass, rather than specially grown crops. However, as recent studies have shown, there is simply not enough waste biomass to use for every worthy climate purpose, and it will therefore be important to prioritize uses, even for waste biomass.

As waste gets scarce, it will also be important to ensure that demand for waste biomass does not, in practice, create economic incentives for further land-use change, in order to produce more “waste.”  In fact, something like this is already happening in some sectors. European power plants burn wood pellets imported from forests in the Southern US, Canada, and Eastern Europe to create “low-carbon” electricity. While these are supposed to come from wood residuals that would otherwise be left to rot, investigators have found that they are instead fueled by clear-cutting – in some cases, of primaeval old-growth forests. This is one more reminder that land is a precious resource, and it is finite – so that uses of land that seem sustainable when viewed in isolation may not be sustainable at all when viewed from a systems-perspective.

Further Resources

Here are a few, great resources to jump off from, as you explore this space.